Sunday, June 28

Cell Phone Jammer : Seminar Report|PPT|PDF|DOC|Presentation|Free Download


A GSM Jammer or cell phone jammer is a device that transmit signal on the same frequency at which the GSM system operates, the jamming success when the mobile phones in the area where the jammer is located are disabled. 

Communication jamming devices were first developed and used by military. Where tactical commanders use RF communications to exercise control of their forces, an enemy has interest in those communications. This interest comes from the fundamental area of denying the successful transport of the information from the sender to the receiver. 


Nowadays the mobile jammer devices or cell phone jammer software are becoming civilian products rather than electronic warfare devices, since with the increasing number of the mobile phone users the need to disable mobile phones in specific places where the ringing of cell phone would be disruptive has increased. These places include worship places, university lecture rooms, libraries, concert halls, meeting rooms, and other places where silence is appreciated 

Construction of Mobile Jammer

Jamming devices overpower the cell phone by transmitting a signal on the same frequency as the cell phone and at a high enough power that the two signals collide and cancel each other out. Cell phones are designed to add power if they experience low-level interference, so the jammer must recognize and match the power increase from the phone. Cell phones are full-duplex devices, which mean they use two separate frequencies, one for talking and one for listening simultaneously. Some jammers block only one of the frequencies used by cell phones, which has the effect of blocking both. The phone is tricked into thinking there is no service because it can receive only one of the frequencies. Less complex devices block only one group of frequencies, while sophisticated jammers can block several types of networks at once to head off dual-mode or tri-mode phones that automatically switch among different network types to find an open signal. Some of the high-end devices block all frequencies at once and others can be tuned to specific frequencies. 

To jam a cell phone, all you need is a device that broadcasts on the correct frequencies. Although different cellular systems process signals differently, all cell-phone networks use radio signals that can be interrupted. GSM, used in digital cellular and PCS-based systems, operates in the 900-MHz and 1800-MHz bands in Europe and Asia and in the 1900-MHz (sometimes referred to as 1.9-GHz) band in the United States. Jammers can broadcast on any frequency and are effective against AMPS, CDMA, TDMA, GSM, PCS, DCS, iDEN and Nextel systems. Old-fashioned analog cell phones and today's digital devices are equally susceptible to jamming. Disrupting a cell phone is the same as jamming any other type of radio communication. A cell phone works by communicating with its service network through a cell tower or base station. Cell towers divide a city into small areas, or cells. As a cell phone user drives down the street, the signal is handed from tower to tower 


Cell Phone Jammer





A jamming device transmits on the same radio frequencies as the cell phone, disrupting the communication between the phone and the cell-phone base station in the town 

It's a called a denial-of-service attack . The jammer denies service of the radio spectrum to the cell-phone users within range of the jamming device. Older jammers sometimes were 

limited to working on phones using only analog or older digital mobile phone standards. Newer models such as the double and triple band jammers can block all widely used systems (AMPS, iDEN, GSM, etc) and are even very effective against newer phones which hop to different frequencies and systems when interfered with. As the dominant network technology and frequencies used for mobile phones vary worldwide, some work only in specific regions such as Europe or North America. 

The power of the jammer's effect can vary widely based on factors such as proximity to towers, indoor and outdoor settings, presence of buildings and landscape, even temperature and humidity play a role. There are concerns that crudely designed jammers may disrupt the functioning of medical devices such as pacemakers. However, like cell phones, most of the devices in common use operate at low enough power output (<1W) to avoid causing any problems

Type "A" Device: JAMMERS :

In this device we overpower cell phone's signal with a stronger signal, This type of device comes equipped with several independent oscillators transmitting ‘jamming signals' capable of blocking frequencies used by paging devices as well as those used by cellular/PCS systems' control channels for call establishment. When active in a designated area, such devices will (by means of RF interference) prevent all pagers and mobile phones located in that area from receiving and transmitting calls. This type of device transmits only a jamming signal and has very poor frequency selectivity, which leads to interference with a larger amount of communication spectrum than it was originally intended to target. Technologist Jim Mahan said, “There are two types. One is called brute force jamming, which just blocks everything. The problem is, it's like power-washing the airwaves and it bleeds over into the public broadcast area. The other puts out a small amount of interference, and you could potentially confine it within a single cell block. You could use lots of little pockets of small jamming to keep a facility under control.” 

Type “B” Device: INTELLIGENT CELLULAR DISABLERS 

Unlike jammers, Type “B” devices do not transmit an interfering signal on the control channels. The device, when located in a designated ‘quiet' area, functions as a ‘detector'. It has a unique identification number for communicating with the cellular base station. When a Type “B” device detects the presence of a mobile phone in the quiet room; the ‘filtering' (i.e. the prevention of authorization of call establishment) is done by the software at the base station. 

When the base station sends the signaling transmission to a target user, the device after detecting simultaneously the presence of that signal and the presence of the target user, signals the base station that the target user is in a ‘quiet' room; therefore, do not establish the communication. Messages can be routed to the user's voice- mail box, if the user subscribes to a voice-mail service. This process of detection and interruption of call establishment is done during the interval normally reserved for signaling and handshaking. For ‘emergency users', the intelligent detector device makes provisions for designated users who have emergency status. These users must pre-register their phone numbers with the service providers. When an incoming call arrives, the detector recognizes that number and the call are established for a specified maximum duration, say two minutes. The emergency users are also allowed to make out going calls. Similarly, the system is capable of recognizing and allowing all emergency calls routed to “911”. 

It should be noted that the Type “B” detector device being an integral part of the cellular/PCS systems, would need to be provisioned by the cellular/PCS service providers or provisioned by a third-party working cooperatively with full support of the cellular/PCS service providers .
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Thursday, June 18

Fluid Amplifiers Electronics Seminar Topics

Updated on 18/6/2015

Basic Principle Of Fluid Amplifier

          Most popular application of fluidics is amplifiers. A fluid amplifier is basically a flat piece of metal or plastic in which shallow passages are engraved for the flow of fluid.

The arrangement of these passages differs for each type of fluid amplifiers, but in principle all the amplifiers have a main power stream, which changes its direction of control jet.

          The tendency of fluid to chose one side of a symmetrically diverging channel and flow in an asymmetric way is called “Conda effect” in honor of the first man (in 1930’s) to observe and utilize the phenomenon. Subsequent work has shown that, if symmetrically placed splitter is very close to the entrance part of the main power jet, then this jet is divided equally in both channels.



Fluid Amplification

          Amplification function can be achieved by employing fluid amplifier. The amplifiers may be electronic or fluidic. Amplifier is a device which gives a large change in output of either pressure or both as a result of small change in control input. In other words we can say that amplifies its input signals.

Generally amplifiers are of following types.
     1. Digital amplifiers
     2. Analogue amplifiers

Timing

This method is used to blow the whistle at pre adjusted time and employs NOT-AND logic functions.

Supply tubes are counted to the clock from the rear at 12 points (at 5 minute intervals). The output tubes are fixed in the clock glass exactly opposite to the supply tubes. The minute hand moved in the gap between these supply tubes and output tubes. These minute hands interrupt the passage of the jet.

Air is supplied to all the 12 supply tubes and to any one of the output tubes. The output tube is connected to the NOT element through a flexible pipe. In the normal position (when minute hand is not interrupting the jet) input signal remains on’ which results switching off the output. Thus the NOT element normally remains ‘off’ and it starts when the minute hand interrupts the air system.

When the lever valve is on position and supply from it is on, AND element will not operates until NOT elements also supplies the output as shown in the figure. Thus when both signals are supplied (i.e. at the point when minute hand interrupts the air system) the AND unit will operate the step up relay which then blow the whistle.

Thus the whistle can be blow at any preset time, by providing the interruptible jet at that particular position on the dial. Timing –with the minute hand interrupting the jet, output tube at 3 (at 15 minute position) and lower valve is in on position, AND function is complete, whistle is blowing.

Logical Function NOT

This logic function can also be achieved by employing one turbulent amplifier. If one input signal is used, the result is NOT i.e. No output will be available. This is also known as ‘signal inversion’.

Logical Function OR

This logic function can be achieved by two turbulent amplifiers. If an input signal either A or B or C or D is applied to turbulent amplifier X, then output from this amplifier will be off. As shown in figure this will cause the input signal E to turbulent amplifier T to be off. This will result in output from the amplifier.

Applications

1. Nuclear application: - Neutron flux detector                                                                
2. Industrial application:-Sewing machine control. 

3. Marine application:-Turbine speed sensors.
4. Medical application: - Artificial heart and lung ventilators.

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Saturday, June 6

Computer Science(CSE) Engineering Seminar with Abstract

Seminar Topic Title for Computer Science(CSE) Engineering
Seminar Topic Title for Computer Science(CSE) Engineering

·         64 bit Computing 
·         Blu RayDisc 
·         GoogleWave 
·         GraphicalPassword Authentication  
·         Captcha
·         EyePhone 
·         3G  
·         CiscoIOS Firewall
·         BlueEyes     
·         ComputerForensics    
·         AJAX     
·         ReverseEngineering Techniques
·         DigitalWatermarking  
·         GoogleApp Engine      
·         CorDECT 
·         Google Glass
·         Bittorrent     
·         A Plan ForNo Spam
·         3DOptical Data Storage
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Saturday, May 16

Wave Energy Converter

Abstract: - Wave Energy Converter :- 

The Wave Energy Converter - WEC is a new, highly efficient technology that harnesses the immense, renewable energy contained in ocean waves. Its unique ability to extract and convert energy from both the rising and falling of waves, represents a technological breakthrough.

A wave energy conversion apparatus comprises at least two devices , each comprising a surface float , at least one of the surface floats being rigidly attached to a submerged body . The movement between the at least two devices preferably effects an energy generation which is harnessed by the linkages.

The apparatus may also include mooring systems that maintain the complete apparatus in a position that is consistent with statutory requirements and not significantly inhibit its efficient operation.

Machine Configuration

Rotor
Two types of magnet fixation methods, surface mounting and burying magnets between pole efficiency and low material usage is desired. The electromagnetic efficiency includes hysteresis losses, eddy current losses and resistive losses. Furthermore, a low load angle is desired. A machine with inherently low load angle has better performance at both normal and transient conditions and is less affected by changing loads and varying frequencies. The four rotor concepts are simulated for different magnet dimensions and various pole widths. Output power, voltage and stator width are held constant in the simulation and the vertical length of the rotor is iterated to fulfill these conditions, usage such as total magnet volume, stator steel.

Wave Energy Converter Seminar Topics


Magnet Dimensions

Different heights to width relations of the magnets have been investigated in order to see if there is an optimum. The magnet volume of single magnet is kept constant and the electromagnetic efficiency and total magnet weight is plotted for different height to width relations of the magnets. As can be seen the electromagnetic efficiency is steadily increasing and the total magnet weight is decreasing with increasing magnet width for the surface mounted magnets. The pole width limits the magnet width and no optimum is reach for the surface mounted magnets. 

Floating Wave Energy Extractor 

Another variation of a wave energy converter, which uses the vertically exerted force of a wave, is a Floating wave energy extractor.

About the technology

The floating wave energy extractor is also a method for the maximum exploitation of the wave energy and it is designed for distant offshore with very unstable sea surface. The system is consists of a rectangular shaped huge mass floating body supported by a large number of floating air columns. The air column’s extensions are connected to pistons. The pistons are placed its own cylinders and it can move up and down through the cylinders when the floating air columns moves with the up-down movements of the waves. The upper side of the cylinders has two valves. One to a high-pressure fluid pipe and it will open when the floating air column on crest. One valve is to the low-pressure fluid pipe and it will open when the floating air column on the trough. The whole system is anchored to the sea bottom.  

Working

When the wave moves through the floating air columns, it to oscillate the floating air columns. When some of the air columns (air columns that on the crest) move upward, the whole weight of the floating system will be supported through that air columns. Also, now some floating air columns (the air columns that on the trough) will move downward. As some of the air columns move upward, the pistons of those air columns to pressurize its corresponding cylinders and the hydraulic fluid inside of the cylinders rush to the high-pressure fluid pipe with high pressure (now the valves to the low-pressure fluid pipe will be closed). Since the whole of the high-pressure fluid pipes are interconnected, the net pressure will focus on the turbine and the turbine will rotate. As the floating air columns that on the trough move down ward because of the gravity, the valves to the high-pressure fluid pipe will be closed and the valves to the low-pressure fluid pipe (the low-pressure fluid pipes are also interconnected) will be open. Now the low-pressure fluid will enter to the cylinders and will be filled. As the turbine rotate, the generator connected to the turbine generate electricity. 

Difficulties

      moorings – long-term fatigue of lines and connections; 

      standard couplings for quick-release and re-attachment of moorings and cables; 

      reduced-cost production of cables, construction and laying offshore;
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64 bit Computing - CSE

What is 64-bit Computing?

The labels "16-bit," "32-bit" or "64-bit," when applied to a microprocessor, characterize the processor's data stream. Although you may have heard the term "64-bit code," this designates code that operates on 64-bit data. 

In more specific terms, the labels "64-bit," 32-bit," etc. designate the number of bits that each of the processor's general-purpose registers (GPRs) can hold. So when someone uses the term "64-bit processor," what they mean is "a processor with GPRs that store 64-bit numbers." And in the same vein, a "64-bit instruction" is an instruction that operates on 64-bit numbers.

64 bit Architectures

Let’s discuss 64 bit Architectures from the leaders of Processor Manufacturers – AMD & Intel (AMD’s Opteron & Intel’s Itanium). 

Intel 64-bit architecture (IA-64)

By using a technique called VLIW, the letters VLIW mean “Very Large Instruction Word”. Processors that use this technique access the memory by transferring long program words, and in each word many instructions are packed. In the case of the IA-64, three instructions are used for each pack of 128 bits. As each instruction has 41 bits, there are 5 bits left that will be used to indicate the kinds of instruction that were packed. Figure 1 shows the instruction packaging scheme. This packaging lessens the number of memory accesses, leaving to the compiler the task of grouping the instructions in order to get the best of the architecture. 

As it has already been said, the 5-bit field, named as “pointer”, serves to indicate the kinds of instructions that are packed. Those 5 bits offer 32 kinds of packaging possible that, in fact, are reduced to 24 kinds, since 8 are not used. Each instruction uses one of the CPU features, which are listed below, and that can be identified in Figure given below.

         Unit I - integer data
         Unit F - floating-point operations
         Unit M - memory access and
        Unit B - branch prediction. 

The architecture that Intel suggests to execute those instructions, that was called Itanium, is versatile and promises performance by means of the simultaneous (parallel) execution of up to 6 instructions. Figure shows the diagram in blocks of this architecture that uses a ‘pipeline’ of 10 stages.



Speculation

The Itanium can load instructions and data onto the CPU before they're actually needed or even if they prove not to be needed, effectively using the processor itself as a cache. Presumably, this early loading is done when the processor is otherwise idle. The advantage gained by speculation limits the effects of memory latency by allowing loading of data before it is needed, thus making it ready to go the moment the processor can use it.                                                                                                                                       
       There are two kinds of speculation: data and control. With the speculation, the compiler advances an operation in a way that its latency (time spent) is removed from the critical way. The speculation is a form of allowing the compiler to avoid that slow operations spoil the parallelism of the instructions. Control speculation is the execution of an operation before the branch that precedes it. On the other hand, data speculation is the execution of a memory load before a storage operation (store) that precedes it and with which it can be related.

Rotating Registers

On top of the frames, there's register rotation, a feature that helps loop unrolling more than parameter passing. With rotation, Itanium can shift up to 96 of its general-purpose registers (the first 32 are still fixed and global) by one or more apparent positions. Why? So that iterative loops that hammer on the same register(s) time after time can all be dispatched and executed at once without stepping on each other. Each instance of the loop actually targets different physical registers, allowing them all to be in flight at once. 

If this sounds a lot like register renaming, it is. Itanium's register-rotation feature is less generic than all-purpose register renaming like Athlon's, so it's easier to implement and faster to execute. Chip-wide register renaming like Athlon's adds gobs of multiplexers, adders, and routing, one of the big drawbacks of a massively out-of-order machine. On a smaller scale, ARM used this trick with its ill-fated Piccolo DSP coprocessor. At the high end, Cydrome also used this technique, a favorite feature that Cydrome alumnus and Itanium team member Bob Rau apparently brought with him. 

So IA-64 has two levels of indirection for its own registers: the logical-to-virtual mapping of the frames and the virtual-to-physical mapping of the rotation. All this means that programs usually aren't accessing the physical registers they think they are, but that's nothing new to high-end microprocessors. Arcane as it seems, this method still uses less hardware trickery than the full register renaming of Athlon, Pentium III, or P4. 

AMD's 64-bit Platform 

To access an area in the computer's physical memory (RAM) to store or retrieve data, the processor needs the address of that location, which is an integer number representing one byte of memory storage. 

Suddenly, having 64-bit registers makes sense as, while a 32-bit processor can access up to 4.3 billion memory addresses (232) for a total of about 4GB of physical memory, a 64-bit processor could conceivably access over 18 petabytes of physical memory. This is the one area that clearly shows why 64-bit processors are the future of computing, as demanding applications such as databases have long been scraping on the 4GB memory ceiling.

If you are a business with a database of a terabyte or more of information, 64-bit processors look pretty good right now. Formerly known as X86-64, the AMD64 architecture is AMD's method of implementing 64-bit processors.
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Tuesday, April 21

Java Card : Seminar Report|PPT|PDF|DOC|Presentation|Free Download

What Is A Smart Card? :- :- 

Identical to the size of a credit card, a smart card stores and processes information through the electronic circuits embedded in silicon in the plastic substrate of its body. 

Types Of Smart Cards
There are two basic kinds of smart cards

1. Intelligent smart card 

        An intelligent smart card contains a microprocessor and offers read, write, and calculating capability, like a small microcomputer.

2.Memory card

A memory card, on the other hand, does not have a microprocessor and is meant only for information storage. A memory card uses security logic to control the access of memory. 

Abstract

Java Card is a smart card that is capable of running programs written in Java. A smart card is a credit card sized plastic card with an integrated circuit (IC) inside. The IC contains a microprocessor and memory so the smart card can process and store information. The Java Card platform lets smart card developers standardize on a common card platform.

Java Card Seminar Topics in Electronics


Java Card Security 

Java applets are subject to Java security restrictions; however, the security model of Java Card systems differs from standard Java in many ways. The Security Manager class is not supported on Java Card. Language security policies are implemented by the virtual machine.  Java applets create objects that store and manipulate data. An object is owned by the applet that creates it. Even though an applet may have the reference to an object, it cannot invoke the object's methods, unless it owns the object or the object is explicitly shared. An applet can share any of its objects with a particular applet or with all applets.

To test a Java Card applet in the JCWDE, you: 

              Start the JCWDE
              Run the APDUTool Utility
              Debug the Applet

Starting The JCWDE

The JCWDE, which runs on your workstation or PC, simulates the Java Card runtime environment on a Java virtual machine. It allows you to run your applet as though it was masked in the read-only memory of a smart card. And importantly, it allows you to run the test in your workstation or PC, without having to convert the applet, generate a mask file, or install the applet. To start the JCWDE, issue the JCWDE command. The primary input to the command is a configuration file that identifies one or more applets.

Converting A Java Card Applet

In Java Card technology, you don't directly incorporate a Java Card applet into a mask. Similarly, after a smart card is manufactured, you don't directly download a Java Card applet for installation onto a smart card. Instead, for masking, you convert an applet class and all the classes in its package to a JCA (Java Card Assembly) file. The JCA file and JCA files for any other packages to be included in the mask are then converted into a format compatible with the target runtime environment. It's this converted output for the target runtime environment that is incorporated into the mask.

Generating a Mask File

Use the mask generator provided with the Java Card 2.1.2 Development Kit to generate a mask file for one or more Java Card applets. The mask file can then be incorporated into a mask for a specific Java Card runtime environment. You specify as input to the mask generator the JCA file for the package that contains the applets, as well as JCA files for any other packages to be included in the mask file, such as JCA files for any needed Java Card API packages. 

Conclusion

Java Card can be used in all fields where the smart card is now being used. Java Card can be used as an ID card which contains personal information, as a medical card which stores medical information, as a credit/debit bank card, as an electronic purse etc. Multi-Application Java Cards, that is, more than one application in a single card is also available.
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