Sunday, August 28

3D Printing : Seminar Report|PPT|PDF|DOC|Presentation|Free Download

3D printing is a form of additive manufacturing technology where a three dimensional object is created by laying down successive layers of material. It is also known as rapid prototyping, is a mechanized method whereby 3D objects are quickly made on a reasonably sized machine connected to a computer containing blueprints for the object.

Stereo Lithography 3D Printers 

Stereo lithographic 3D printers (known as SLAs or stereo lithography apparatus) position a perforated platform just below the surface of a vat of liquid photo curable polymer. A UV laser beam then traces the first slice of an object on the surface of this liquid, causing a very thin layer of photopolymer to harden. The perforated platform is then lowered very slightly and another slice is traced out and hardened by the laser. Another slice is then created, and then another, until a complete object has been printed and can be removed from the vat of photopolymer, drained of excess liquid, and cured.

3D Printing

Inkjet 3D Printing

It creates the model one layer at a time by spreading a layer of powder and inkjet printing binder in the cross-section of the part. It is the most widely used 3-D Printing technology these days and the reasons beyond that are stated below.    

        This technology is the only one that
        1) Allows for the printing of full color prototypes. 

2) Unlike stereo lithography, inkjet 3D printing is optimized for speed, low cost, and ease-of-use.

3) No toxic chemicals like those used in stereo lithography are required.

4) Minimal post printing finish work is needed; one needs only to use the printer itself to blow off surrounding powder after the printing process. 

        5) Allows overhangs and excess powder can be easily removed with an air blower.

System Overview

Our 3D printing process is automatic, and thus easy for any user. Still, a lot is taking place under the hood. This section provides an overview of the ZPrinter system and the steps involved in printing a 3D physical model. We will refer to the 3D printer diagram in Figure 2 as we detail the 3D printing process

1) Automatic air filter: ensures that all powder stays within the confines of the machine, emitting only clean air into the office or workroom environment.

2) Binder cartridge: contains the water-based adhesive that solidifies the powder.

3) Build chamber: the area where the part is produced.
        4) Carriage: slides along the gantry to position the print heads.

        5) Compressor: generates compressed air to depowder finished parts.

Ease Of Use

Our vision of making on-demand prototyping accessible to everyone requires that printing a model be almost as easy as printing a document. We envisioned that every designer, engineer, intern or student should be able to ZPrint a prototype. And like a document printer, a 3D printer should be perfectly compatible with a professional office environment.

To achieve these goals, the ZPrinter automates operation at nearly every step. This includes setup, powder loading, self-monitoring of materials and print status, printing, and removal and recycling of loose powder. The ZPrinter is quiet, produces zero liquid waste and employs negative pressure in a closed-loop system to contain airborne particles. Powder and binder cartridges ensure clean loading of build materials. Plus, an integrated fine-powder removal chamber reduces the footprint of the system. All of these advances mean that no special training is required, and the “hands on” time for operating the 3D printer is just a few minutes. 

You control the ZPrinter from either the desktop or the printer. ZPrint software lets you monitor powder, binder, and ink levels from your desktop, and remotely read the machine’s LCD display. The on-board printer display and intuitive interface enables you to perform most operations at the machine. Plus, the ZPrinter runs unattended during the printing process, requiring user interaction only for setup and part removal.


1) Education

2) Healthcare

Rapidly produce 3D models to reduce operating time, enhance patient and physician communications, and improve patient outcomes.
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Night Vision Technology

Night vision devices attached to vehicles there by reduces the chances of accidents both on and off the roads. Many leading car manufacturers have diverted their full R&D towards developing accident prevention technologies rather than going for higher efficiencies or higher torque production.

Electromagnetic Spectrum

Before going into the night vision systems it is necessary to understand something about the electromagnetic spectrum. Humans are visible only to the rays felling under the visible region of electromagnetic spectrum and are invisible to both the infra-red as well as the ultra violet region of the electromagnetic spectrum.

But night vision technology makes it possible for the humans to view the rays felling in the infra-red region of the electromagnetic spectrum, that is generally the night vision systems used in automobiles captures the infra-red image of distant obstacles on road as every object emits infra-red rays (heat rays) even during night. This image is viewed in a screen and the driver can thus apply the brakes as required.

Two Types Of Night Vision Technologies On The Market

Far Infrared (FIR) and Near Infrared (NIR) .FIR detects the radiation which all objects emit, while NIR detects the reflected illumination in a frequency just outside the visible range of a human being. All cars today have an acceptable "night vision" system. That is the high beam headlights of the vehicle. Even though they could be improved theirperformances are at least acceptable. However, in many areas, highbeams are of very limited use due to oncoming traffic. The insufficient night-time visibility originates in the fact that the high beam headlights are rarely possible to use. A Night Vision system must therefore be a system that increases visibility in situations where only low beam headlights can be used today.

Fir And Nir Night Vision Systems

Both NIR and FIR technology offer substantial benefits in different conditions. Both types of systems can also be used together with high beam headlights. The benefit of NIR systems together with high beams may be limited, as NIR systems could be compared with driving using high beams, but without blinding the other road users. The longer range of FIR systems would also make them very effective on dark roads as complements to the high beams of the vehicle. However, as concluded the previous section. Pedestrian detection while facing other vehicles with oncoming headlights should be the main evaluation criteria of a Night Vision system.

The Human-Machine Interface

The population group likely to benefit the most of all from the extra information provided is elderly people due to the degradation in vision this group experience with age (see table 1). However, it has also been shown that this group is less likely to accept, or utilize, the extra information. The Human-Machine Interface (HMI) between the system and the driver is fundamental for successful acceptance, especially among elderly drivers. Proper understanding of the required performance of the system and the expectation of the driver is a prerequisite for designing a good HMI. The primary issue should not be the type of display, but what information to provide to the driver and how it should be done.

A Night Vision System May Operate In Following Modes

Use the system as a look-ahead display to increase the preview — an extended view into the road ahead.

1) Use the system as a look-ahead display combined with a warning that directs the driver's attention to thedisplay when a risk has been identified.

2) Use the system as a look-ahead display but highlighting risky objects like pedestrians.

3) Use the sensor as a data source only and provide a warning when a risk exceeds a given threshold.

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Java Ring

What is Java Ring?

A Java Ring is a finger ring that contains a small microprocessor with built-in capabilities for the user, a sort of smart card that is wearable on a finger. Sun Microsystem's Java Ring was introduced at their JavaOne Conference and, instead of a gemstone, contained an inexpensive microprocessor in a stainless-steel iButton running a Java virtual machine and preloaded with applets (little application programs). The rings were built by Dallas Semiconductor. 

Workstations at the conference had "ring readers" installed on them that downloaded information about the user from the conference registration system. This information was then used to enable a number of personalized services. For example, a robotic machine made coffee according to user preferences, which it downloaded when they snapped the ring into another "ring reader." 

Although Java Rings aren't widely used yet, such rings or similar devices could have a number of real-world applications, such as starting your car and having all your vehicle's components automatically adjust to your preferences.

The Ring, first introduced at JavaOne Conference, has been tested at Celebration School, an innovative K-12 school just outside Orlando, FL. The rings given to students are programmed with Java applets that communicate with host applications on networked systems. Applets are small applications that are designed to be run within another application. The Java Ring is snapped into a reader, called a Blue Dot receptor, to allow communication between a host system and the Java Ring. 


An iButton is a microchip similar to those used in a smart card but housed in a round stainless steel button of 17.35mm x 3.1mm - 5.89mm in size .The iButton was invented and is still manufactured exclusively by Dallas Semiconductor mainly for applications in harsh and demanding environments.                              
A Java Ring--and any related device that houses an iButton with a Java Virtual Machine--goes beyond a traditional smart card by providing real memory, more power, and a capacity for dynamic programming. On top of these features, the ring provides a rugged environment, wear-tested for 10-year durability. You can drop it on the floor, step on it, forget to take it off while swimming and the data remains safe inside.  Today iButtons are primarily used for authentication and auditing types of applications. Since they can store data, have a clock for time-stamping, and support for encryption and authentication, they are ideal for audit trails.

iButton Viewer 

With the TMEX Windows installations you get the iButton Viewer, an application for exploring iButton features from your PC. Before using the Viewer, you need only connect a serial port kit (DS9097U + DS1402D-DR8) or a parallel port kit (DS1410E + DS1402D-DB8 ) to your PC. iButton Viewer automatically finds iButtons or 1-Wire chips on your system and displays their serial numbers with a description of relevant features and menu options. As the iButton family grows, iButton Viewer's capabilities will be expanded to include the new iButtons. The OneWireViewer supports a wider array of iButtons and 1-Wire devices.

Java-powered cryptographic iButton 

A microprocessor and high-speed arithmetic accelerator generate the large numbers needed to encrypt and decrypt information. The Java-powered       iButton adds its complete cryptographic circuitry to a Java Virtual Machine (VM) that is Java Card™ 2.0-compliant, enabling the world's large pool of Java programmers to tap into a powerful development tools to get an application up and running quickly. The Java-powered iButton's greatest promise lies in its capacity to interact with Internet applications to support strong remote authentication and remotely authorized financial transactions. 

Applications Of Java Ring

    1)   Tracking Snail Mail
     2)  Sturdy Data Trackers 

Java Ring - The Tidal Wave Of Future

A Java Ring contains a processor compatible with Java Card 2.0, a Java Virtual Machine, sizeable RAM and ROM memory capacity, and a real-time clock. Most importantly, the iButton supports multiple applets that can be loaded dynamically. Freed from the usual constraints of connectivity, this ring lets you roam the world and bring with you your personal preferences--your computing environment, your medical information, your choices of colors or coffee.

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