Solar Tree ECE Seminar

About Solar Tree - Abstract :- :-

Now a day with the growing population and energy demand we should take a renewable option of energy source and also we should keep in mind that energy should not cause pollution and other natural hazards. In this case the solar energy is the best option for us.

India is a highly populated country, so we should take the advantage of such an energy which requires a very less space to produce energy efficiently. In this case solar tree could be the best one for us. We can also use the technique called “SPIRALLING PHYLLATAXY” to improve the efficiency of the plant. It can be applied in street lightening system, industrial power supply etc. It is much better than the traditional solar PV system in area point of view and also more efficient. So this will be a very good option and should be implemented. 

Solar Tree ECE Seminar

Why We Called It As Solar Tree

As we know trees are present in nature and they can produce their own food material by the process called PHOTOSYNTHESIS. It is the process by which the green plant collects energy from sun and the water present in soil at the day time and can produces their own food material. By this process they are indirectly providing food to the human society because we are depending on the green plants for our food directly or indirectly.

Here we are considering the example for understanding about the solar tree. This is a tree in which the stems connected acts as the branches of the tree and the solar panels are like the leaves. Green leaves are producing food materials for human beings likewise this leaves are producing energy for the society. So it is very appropriate to called it as a tree. 

Why It Is Better Than A Traditional System

For the traditional system we require large size of land to generate a small amount of power. It requires about 1% land as compare to the traditional system.

Example – To generate 2 MW power from a pv module we requires 10 -12 acres of land for housing of panels only.

But for the same amount of energy we require only 0.10-0.12 acres of land in case of solar tree.

 Why It Is Unique

The unique technique is that flexible panels connected to the stem which can be rotated as our desire. So that flexibility avoidance of wind pressure can be possible. Flexibility offers manual rotating so that maximum power can be obtained.


To fulfil the increasing energy demand the people and saving of land this project is very successful one. This can provide electricity without any power cut problem. The extra energy can be provided to the grid.
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Lean Manufacturing mechanical report


In this world of competition without proper production management a company cannot survive. Using a manufacturing concept for competitive advantage is relatively a new concept.

Lean manufacturing is a concept actually brought up y Toyota motor company, Japan. But it was popularized to the world by the book “THE MACHINE THAT CHANGED THE WORLD” by Womack, Jones and Roos of MIT in 1990.

Adding value by eliminating waste, being responsive to changes, focusing on quality and enhancing effectiveness of workforce is what achieved by lean manufacturing. It needs a systematic and continuing search for non value added activities. This seminar provides an overview of basic elements, techniques and benefits of lean manufacturing.

Elements Of Lean Manufacturing

Those concepts that lead to the implementation of lean manufacturing successfully are called elements of lean manufacturing. The basic elements of lean manufacturing are waste elimination, continuous improvement, pull system, one-piece workflow, cellular manufacturing and 5S’s. When these elements are focused in the areas of cost, quality and delivery, this forms the basis for a lean production system.

Elimination Of Waste

Waste is anything that doesn’t add value to the product. Seeing whether the process is adding value to the product or not is the best way to identify wastes.
                              Is the activity adding value?

               If YES                                                         If NO
   Is this the best way to do it?                         Can it be eliminated?
                                                                     If not, can it be reduced?

Out of the complete processes in an industry only about 5 % actually add value to the product. Rest of the process does not add any value. Rest 35% activities are such that even though this doesn’t add any value but still it cannot be eliminated as it is necessary. For eg.  Inventory cannot be completely reduced, scrap materials cannot be made zero, it may take few minutes to load unload and load for next operation etc. So focus should be on complete elimination of waste activities and reducing the necessary non-value adding activities

One-Piece Flow

One piece flow is one of the important techniques in implementing lean manufacturing. Traditional batch production in mass production is replaced by one piece flow in lean manufacturing. Here batch size is reduced to almost one. This reduces the total lead time and also reduces waiting between operations or queuing.

Comparison Between Traditional And Lean Manufacturing

For years manufacturers have created products in anticipation of having a market for them. Operations have traditionally been driven by sales forecasts and firms tended to stockpile inventories in case they were needed. A key difference in Lean Manufacturing is that it is based on the concept that production can and should be driven by real customer demand. Instead of producing what you hope to sell, Lean Manufacturing can produce what your customer wants with shorter lead times. Instead of pushing product to market, it's pulled there through a system that's set up to quickly respond to customer demand. 

Lean organizations are capable of producing high-quality products economically in lower volumes and bringing them to market faster than mass producers. A lean organization can make twice as much product with twice the quality and half the time and space, at half the cost, with a fraction of the normal work-in-process inventory. Lean management is about operating the most efficient and effective organization possible, with the least cost and zero waste.


    1.     High quality & reliability
    2.    Lower overall costs
    3.    Self-directed work teams
    4.     Lead time reduction
    5.      Fast market response
    6.      Longer machine life


“LEAN” can be said as adding value by eliminating waste being responsive to change, focusing on quality and enhancing the effectiveness of the work force.

Although lean has its origin in the automobile industry it is being successfully used in other production industries. Lean manufacturing is now extended to fields like I.T, service etc in order to reduce production cost and meet changing customer needs.

Since lean is completely customer oriented it is here to stay. It is also important as it emphasis customer satisfaction.
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Methanol Fueled Marine Diesel Engine

About Methanol Fueled Marine Diesel Engine :- :- 

Nowadays concerns about methanol have increased from the viewpoints of environmental protection and versatility of fuels at a global scale. Energetic research on methanol-fueled automobile engines has been forwarded from the viewpoints of low environmental pollution and the use of alternate fuel since the oil crisis, and they are now being tested on vehicles in various countries in the world. Desire for saving of maintenance cost and labour prevails as well as the environmental problems in the field of marine engines. From these motives scientists have carried out research and development of a methanol fueled marine diesel engine which is quite different from automobile engines in the size, main particulars, working condition and durability. Although scientists have made a great use of invaluable knowledge from automotive technology, some special studies were necessary due to these differences.  Ignition method is a typical one. Dual fuel injection system was tried for trouble-free ignition of methanol fuel.  This system is thought to be the most favourable ignition method for marine diesel engines which have to withstand quick load change and accept no misfiring. 

Influence Of Pilot Oil Injection Nozzle

The effect of the pilot oil injection nozzle has been confirmed by changing the number and diameter of nozzle holes and the direction of injection in the range. As a result, the one-hole nozzle is the best in terms of fuel consumption, the stability of cylinder pressure and the reduction in the quantity of pilot oil. 

However, the difference in performance among various types of nozzles is not remarkable. As mentioned later, when priority is given to the issues of startability, accelerating ability and sudden load change like the engagement of a clutch, or to the problem when the pilot oil injection nozzle holes have been closed, it can be said that the three-hole nozzle is the best and the largest possible nozzle hole diameter is desirable. Though the influence of the direction of the pilot oil injection nozzle in relation to the main fuel injection nozzle has also been confirmed, no improvement has been found. It is conjectured that the reasons for the above are that swirls in the combustion chamber of the experimental engine are not strong and the quantity of pilot oil is enough.

Influence of the Quantity of pilot Oil

It can be seen from this figure that the lowest points of specific fuel consumption differ with the specifications of pilot oil injection valves. That is, the percentage of pilot oil in total consumed fuel for the lowest point of specific fuel consumption is between 11 and 12% for the one-hole nozzle and that is near 15% for the three-hole nozzle. Thus, the lowest point shifts toward the larger percentage of pilot oil. Though the quantity of pilot oil can be decreased down to about 4% by making the pilot oil injection nozzle area smaller, proper quantity is considered to be 12-15% in practice, since the startability of an engine must be considered as mentioned later. Smoke density and NOx have also been measured during these tests. Though detailed results will be explained later, the results can be summarized as follows. Compared with a diesel engine being operated on gas oil, the smoke density is lower by one order by Bosch scale and NOx is about half under the same load condition. Thus, exhaust gas characteristics have been confirmed to be superior. 

Test Method

The stable combustion of dual fuel engines under normal operation can be ensured by pilot oil of several percent of total fuel which is injected under full load condition. However, a considerably large quantity of fuel is needed when starting engines, since accelerating torque is necessary in addition to normal running torque. For this reason, starting tests have been carried out under the following conditions. 

a) Constant quantity of methanol (full load) and varying quantity of pilot oil

b) Constant quantity of pilot oil and varying quantity of methanol
c) Operation on only pilot oil 

d) Starting on pilot oil and injection of methanol after that 


Tests have been carried out under static and dynamic conditions in order to grasp engine performance when methanol is applied to marine diesel engines. As a result, it has turned out that the performance of a methano1/oil burning engine can be improved near to the performance level of an oil burning engine by 

1. Optimizing the fuel injection system and the combustion chamber geometry

2. Adapting the fuel regulating system and the intake air system of the former.
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For Project Topics or Report

For Project Topics :- :-

Main or Major Project Topics or Report With Abstracts, Ideas and PDF for following B.Tech & M.Tech Branches under Java, Android, .Net, PHP, VLSI  Streams.
  •  Electrical,
  •  Electronics and Telecommunication,
  • Computer Science,
  •  Mechanical,
  • Information Technology,
  •  Automobile,  Civil,
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Disease Detection Using Bio Robotics

Background :- :-  

Reaction time, speed, force, and tremor are parameters that are used to obtain a quantitative instrumental determination of a patient’s neuro-psychophysical health. These parameters have been used in the study of the progression of Parkinson’s disease, a particularly degenerative neural process, but these parameters can also be useful in detecting the wellness of a healthy person. As a matter of fact, these measurements turn out to be an excellent method of finding reactive parameters alteration due not only to a pathology, but also, for example, to the use of drugs, alcohol, drugs used in the treatment of mental conditions, or other substances that could affect a person’s reactive and coordination capabilities.

Whether the person suffers from Parkinson’s disease; another pathology, or is healthy, it is important to carry out continuous monitoring of his health condition. The ordinary therapy for Parkinson’s disease has to be carefully dosed with considerable frequency, because inadequate doses could have repercussions of the motion capability of the patient. Therefore, it is important to control the value of the parameters that determine nervous system health.

Moreover, for a healthy person, a continuous health monitoring turn out to be an excellent prevention system of some pathology and is an excellent method to acquire consciousness of how lifestyle and behavior have repercussions on one’s psychophysical well-being.


This seminar deals with the design and the development of a bio-robotic system based on fuzzy logic to diagnose and monitor the neuro-psychophysical conditions of an individual. The system, called DDX, is portable without losing efficiency and accuracy in diagnosis and also provides the ability to transfer diagnosis through a remote communication interface, in order to monitor the daily health of a patient. DDX is a portable system, involving multiple parameters such as reaction time, speed, strength and tremor which are processed by means of fuzzy logic. The resulting output can be visualized through a display or transmitted by a communication interface.

New Experimental System (Ddx)

DDX is the new experimental bio-robotic system for the acquisition and restitution of human finger movement data. It is a bio-robotic system designed and constructed with medical and clinical data for the analysis of Parkinson’s disease. It was originally used for the analysis of neural disturbances with quantitative evaluation of both the response times and the dynamic action of the subject. 


By pressing the button, three beacons are sent, signifying, respectively, beginning pressure, race end, and force. First, the processor sends an impulse (like a warning) to the buzzer, and the timer starts. It begins the sampling and, after a random interval, sends another impulse to the buzzer (in order to obtain the starting signal). The value of the timer is stored in to tj. When the patient has pressed the push button, a beginning pressure beacon is sent, and the value of the timer is assigned to ti  This time is what we call the “Reaction Time”. At the end of the movement stroke, an end-of-race beacon is sent, and the value of the timer is assigned to tf. The speed of patient motion can be calculated from these times. When the stroke ends, the pressure is calculated using a simple circuit based on a strain gauge, a filter, an amplifier and an analog to digital (A/D) converter. Tremor is measured by a routine that reads data from the switching accelerometer on an input/output (I/O) pin.


In this article, an innovative bio-robotic system for neuro-psychophysical health-condition detection is presented. Today, systems of detection are very reliable but not portable and do not generally allow diagnoses to be sent via the internet.     

The proposed fuzzy logic solution is portable without losing efficiency and accuracy in diagnosis and also provides the ability to transfer diagnoses through a remote communication interface in order to monitor the daily health of a patient. The system is an intelligent machine based on soft computing techniques, and its efficiency can be improved considering more patterns of examples of functions, calibration, or, moreover, by using self-learning techniques.                                         
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Graphical Password Authentication IEEE CSE

Abstract :- :- 

          The most common computer authentication method is to use alphanumerical usernames and passwords. This method has been shown to have significant drawbacks. For example, users tend to pick passwords that can be easily guessed. On the other hand, if a password is hard to guess, then it is often hard to remember.

        To address this problem, some researchers have developed authentication methods that use pictures as passwords. In this paper, we conduct a comprehensive survey of the existing graphical password techniques. We classify these techniques into two categories: recognition-based and recall-based approaches. We discuss the strengths and limitations of each method and point out the future research directions in this area.

          We also try to answer two important questions: “Are graphical passwords as secure as text-based passwords?”; “What are the major design and implementation issues for graphical passwords”. In this paper , we are conducting a comprehensive survey of existing graphical image password authentication techniques. Also we are here proposing a new technique for graphical authentication.

Overview Of The Authentication Methods 

Current authentication methods can be divided into three main areas:

      Token based authentication
      Knowledge based authentication 

Token based techniques, such as key cards, bank cards and smart cards are widely used. Many token-based authentication systems also use knowledge based techniques to enhance security. For example, ATM cards are generally used together with a PIN number. 

Biometric based authentication techniques, such as fingerprints, iris scan, or facial recognition, are not yet widely adopted. The major drawback of this approach is that such systems can be expensive, and the identification process can be slow and often unreliable. However, this type of technique provides he highest level of security.  

        Knowledge based techniques are the most widely used authentication techniques and include both text-based and picture-based passwords. The picture-based techniques can  be further divided into two categories: recognition-based and recall-based graphical techniques. Using recognition-based techniques, a user is presented with a set of images and the user passes the authentication by recognizing and identifying the images he or she selected during the registration stage. Using recall-based techniques, a user is asked to reproduce something that he or she created or selected earlier during the registration stage.

Recognition Based Techniques 

Dhamija and Perrig  proposed a graphical authentication scheme based on the HashVisualization technique . In their system, the user is asked to select a certain number of images from a  set of random pictures generated by a program . Later, the user will be required to identify the pre selected images in order to be authenticated. The results showed that 90% of all participants succeeded in the authentication using this technique, while only 70% succeeded using text-based passwords and PINS. The average log-in time, however, is longer than the traditional approach. A weakness of this system is that the server needs to store the seeds of the portfolio images of each user in plain text. Also, the process of selecting a set of pictures from the picture database can be tedious and time consuming for the user.


The past decade has seen a growing interest in using graphical passwords as an alternative to the traditional text-based passwords. In this paper, we have conducted a comprehensive survey of existing graphical password techniques. The current graphicalpassword techniques can be classified into two categories: recognition-based and recall-based techniques.

Although the main argument for graphical passwords is that people are better at memorizing graphical passwords than text-based passwords, the existing user studies are very limited and there is not yet convincing evidence to support this argument. Our preliminary analysis suggests that it is more difficult to break graphical passwords using the traditional attack methods such as brute force search, dictionary attack, or spyware. However, since there is not yet wide deployment of graphical password systems, the vulnerabilities of graphical passwords are still not fully understood. 
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