Disease Detection Using Bio Robotics

Background :- :-  

Reaction time, speed, force, and tremor are parameters that are used to obtain a quantitative instrumental determination of a patient’s neuro-psychophysical health. These parameters have been used in the study of the progression of Parkinson’s disease, a particularly degenerative neural process, but these parameters can also be useful in detecting the wellness of a healthy person. As a matter of fact, these measurements turn out to be an excellent method of finding reactive parameters alteration due not only to a pathology, but also, for example, to the use of drugs, alcohol, drugs used in the treatment of mental conditions, or other substances that could affect a person’s reactive and coordination capabilities.

Whether the person suffers from Parkinson’s disease; another pathology, or is healthy, it is important to carry out continuous monitoring of his health condition. The ordinary therapy for Parkinson’s disease has to be carefully dosed with considerable frequency, because inadequate doses could have repercussions of the motion capability of the patient. Therefore, it is important to control the value of the parameters that determine nervous system health.

Moreover, for a healthy person, a continuous health monitoring turn out to be an excellent prevention system of some pathology and is an excellent method to acquire consciousness of how lifestyle and behavior have repercussions on one’s psychophysical well-being.

Abstract

This seminar deals with the design and the development of a bio-robotic system based on fuzzy logic to diagnose and monitor the neuro-psychophysical conditions of an individual. The system, called DDX, is portable without losing efficiency and accuracy in diagnosis and also provides the ability to transfer diagnosis through a remote communication interface, in order to monitor the daily health of a patient. DDX is a portable system, involving multiple parameters such as reaction time, speed, strength and tremor which are processed by means of fuzzy logic. The resulting output can be visualized through a display or transmitted by a communication interface.

New Experimental System (Ddx)

DDX is the new experimental bio-robotic system for the acquisition and restitution of human finger movement data. It is a bio-robotic system designed and constructed with medical and clinical data for the analysis of Parkinson’s disease. It was originally used for the analysis of neural disturbances with quantitative evaluation of both the response times and the dynamic action of the subject. 

Software

By pressing the button, three beacons are sent, signifying, respectively, beginning pressure, race end, and force. First, the processor sends an impulse (like a warning) to the buzzer, and the timer starts. It begins the sampling and, after a random interval, sends another impulse to the buzzer (in order to obtain the starting signal). The value of the timer is stored in to tj. When the patient has pressed the push button, a beginning pressure beacon is sent, and the value of the timer is assigned to ti  This time is what we call the “Reaction Time”. At the end of the movement stroke, an end-of-race beacon is sent, and the value of the timer is assigned to tf. The speed of patient motion can be calculated from these times. When the stroke ends, the pressure is calculated using a simple circuit based on a strain gauge, a filter, an amplifier and an analog to digital (A/D) converter. Tremor is measured by a routine that reads data from the switching accelerometer on an input/output (I/O) pin.

Conclusions

In this article, an innovative bio-robotic system for neuro-psychophysical health-condition detection is presented. Today, systems of detection are very reliable but not portable and do not generally allow diagnoses to be sent via the internet.     

The proposed fuzzy logic solution is portable without losing efficiency and accuracy in diagnosis and also provides the ability to transfer diagnoses through a remote communication interface in order to monitor the daily health of a patient. The system is an intelligent machine based on soft computing techniques, and its efficiency can be improved considering more patterns of examples of functions, calibration, or, moreover, by using self-learning techniques.                                         
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Graphical Password Authentication IEEE CSE

Abstract :- :- 

          The most common computer authentication method is to use alphanumerical usernames and passwords. This method has been shown to have significant drawbacks. For example, users tend to pick passwords that can be easily guessed. On the other hand, if a password is hard to guess, then it is often hard to remember.

        To address this problem, some researchers have developed authentication methods that use pictures as passwords. In this paper, we conduct a comprehensive survey of the existing graphical password techniques. We classify these techniques into two categories: recognition-based and recall-based approaches. We discuss the strengths and limitations of each method and point out the future research directions in this area.

          We also try to answer two important questions: “Are graphical passwords as secure as text-based passwords?”; “What are the major design and implementation issues for graphical passwords”. In this paper , we are conducting a comprehensive survey of existing graphical image password authentication techniques. Also we are here proposing a new technique for graphical authentication.

Overview Of The Authentication Methods 

Current authentication methods can be divided into three main areas:

      Token based authentication
      Knowledge based authentication 

Token based techniques, such as key cards, bank cards and smart cards are widely used. Many token-based authentication systems also use knowledge based techniques to enhance security. For example, ATM cards are generally used together with a PIN number. 


Biometric based authentication techniques, such as fingerprints, iris scan, or facial recognition, are not yet widely adopted. The major drawback of this approach is that such systems can be expensive, and the identification process can be slow and often unreliable. However, this type of technique provides he highest level of security.  

        Knowledge based techniques are the most widely used authentication techniques and include both text-based and picture-based passwords. The picture-based techniques can  be further divided into two categories: recognition-based and recall-based graphical techniques. Using recognition-based techniques, a user is presented with a set of images and the user passes the authentication by recognizing and identifying the images he or she selected during the registration stage. Using recall-based techniques, a user is asked to reproduce something that he or she created or selected earlier during the registration stage.

Recognition Based Techniques 

Dhamija and Perrig  proposed a graphical authentication scheme based on the HashVisualization technique . In their system, the user is asked to select a certain number of images from a  set of random pictures generated by a program . Later, the user will be required to identify the pre selected images in order to be authenticated. The results showed that 90% of all participants succeeded in the authentication using this technique, while only 70% succeeded using text-based passwords and PINS. The average log-in time, however, is longer than the traditional approach. A weakness of this system is that the server needs to store the seeds of the portfolio images of each user in plain text. Also, the process of selecting a set of pictures from the picture database can be tedious and time consuming for the user.

Conclusion

The past decade has seen a growing interest in using graphical passwords as an alternative to the traditional text-based passwords. In this paper, we have conducted a comprehensive survey of existing graphical password techniques. The current graphicalpassword techniques can be classified into two categories: recognition-based and recall-based techniques.

Although the main argument for graphical passwords is that people are better at memorizing graphical passwords than text-based passwords, the existing user studies are very limited and there is not yet convincing evidence to support this argument. Our preliminary analysis suggests that it is more difficult to break graphical passwords using the traditional attack methods such as brute force search, dictionary attack, or spyware. However, since there is not yet wide deployment of graphical password systems, the vulnerabilities of graphical passwords are still not fully understood. 
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Railway Wagon Breaking System

About Railway Wagon Breaking System:- :- 

Braking system in railway wagon is very important to maintain speed as well as to decelerate speed and stop the train. It is done by converting kinetic energy into heat energy. The mostly used braking systems are air braking and vacuum braking system.

Air brakes are mostly used because of its advantages such as short braking distance, high braking force, compact light equipments etc. It uses compressed air as the force used to push the blocks on to the wheels. The vacuum brake is also very popular. They are similar to the air brakes only difference is that during application in vacuum brake, air is provided through brake pipe, while in air brake, air is removed from brake pipe. Electronically Controlled Pneumatic Braking system is used for overcome the problems associated with air braking system. In this case braking command is transmitted to wagons electronically by sending signals and codes. In Dynamic braking system and Regenerative braking system, motor works as a generator to convert mechanical energy into electrical energy & this electrical energy is converted into heat energy by main resistor or transmitted to overhead wire. To avoid accidents an Automatic Control Systems like Auxiliary Warning Systems are used to stop or automatically control speed of train according to signal aspects. 

Railway Wagon Breaking Seminar Topics

Principle Parts

1.   Driver’s Brake Valve
2.   Exhasters
3.   Brake Pipe
4.   Dummy Coupling

5.   Coupled Hoses
6.   Brake Cylinder
7.   Vacuum Reservoir

8.   Ball Valve

Vacuum Reservoir

The operation of the Vacuum Brake relies on the difference in pressure between one side of the brake cylinder piston and the other.  In order to ensure there is always a source of vacuum available to operate the brake, a vacuum reservoir is provided on, or connected to the upper side of the piston.

Dummy Coupling

At the ends of each vehicle, a dummy coupling point is provided to allow the ends of the brake pipe hoses to be sealed when the vehicle is uncoupled.  The sealed dummy couplings prevent the vacuum being lost from the brake pipe.

Exhasters

A two-speed rotary machine fitted to a train to evacuate the atmospheric pressure from the brake pipe, reservoirs and brake cylinders to effect a brake release.  It is usually controlled from the driver's brake valve, being switched in at full speed to get a brake release or at slow speed to maintain the vacuum at its release level whilst the train is running.  Exhausters are normally driven off an electric motor but they can be run directly from a diesel engine. 

Brake Application 

The vacuum has been reduced by the admission of atmospheric pressure into the brake pipe. This has forced the piston upwards in the brake cylinder. By way of the connection to the brake rigging, the upward movement of the piston has caused the brake blocks to be applied to the wheels. The movement of the Piston in the brake cylinder relies on the fact that there is a pressure difference between the underside of the piston and the upper side. During the brake application, the vacuum in the brake pipe is reduced by admitting air from the atmosphere.  As the air enters the ball valve, it forces the ball upwards to close the connection to the vacuum reservoir. This ensures that the vacuum in the reservoir will not be reduced. At the same time, the air entering the underside of the brake cylinder creates an imbalance in the pressure compared with the pressure above the Piston.

Conclusion

Braking system is very important part of the railway wagon. Air braking system is very advantageous system. The biggest advantage that air brakes have over vacuum brakes is that the maximum pressure is 70psi instead of only 17psi. Air brake equipment can thus also be smaller and lighter. This advantage increases at high altitude, e.g. Peru. The main advantage for vacuum brakes is that the vacuum can be created by a steam ejector with no moving parts, whereas an air brake system requires a noisy compressor. Many vacuum braking systems are change to air braking system when the demand for braking power increases. The similarity in both is brake controlled by Brake pipe. Twin pipe system reduces the time required to charging the auxiliary reservoir. Both braking systems are also called automatic braking system, because if connecting hose is broken for any reason, pressure is lost from the brake pipe, because of this air pressure from auxiliary reservoir enters to the brake cylinder, and then brakes are apply because of movement of Piston.
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Captcha

Background :- :- 

        The need for CAPTCHAs rose to keep out the website/Search Engine abuse by bots. In 1997, AltaVista sought ways to block and discourage the automatic submissions of URLs into their search engines. Andrei Broder, Chief Scientist of AltaVista, and his colleagues developed a filter. Their method was to generate a printed text randomly that only humans could read and not machine readers. Their approach was so effective that in an year, “spam-add-ons’” were reduced by 95% and a patent was issued in 2001.

About CAPTCHA

We introduce CAPTCHA, an automated test that humans can pass, but current computer programs can't pass: any program that has high success over a captcha can be used to solve an unsolved Artifcial Intelligence (AI) problem. We provide several novel constructions of captchas. Since captchas have many applications in practical security, our approach introduces a new class of hard problems that can be exploited for security purposes. Much like research in Cryptography has had a positive impact on algorithms for factoring and discrete log, we hope that the use of hard AI problems for security purposes allows us to advance the field of Artifcial Intelligence. We introduce two families of AI problems that can be used to construct captchas and we show that solutions to such problems can be used for steganographic communication. Captchas based on these AI problem families, then, imply a win-win situation: either the problems remain unsolved and there is always to differentiate humans from computers, or the problems are solved and there is a way to Communicate covertly on some channels.

Types of CAPTCHAs

1. Text CAPTCHAs
1.1 Gimpy
1.2 Ez – Gimpy
1.3 BaffleText
1.4 MSN Captcha
2. Graphic CAPTCHAs

The Audio CAPTCHA

        Recent research is suggesting that Google's audio capture is the latest in a string of CAPTCHA's to have been defeated by software. t has been theorized that one cost-effective means of breaking audio captures and image captures that have not yet had automated systems developed is to use a mechanical turk and pay low rates for per-CAPTCHA reading by humans, or provide another form of motivation such as access to popular sites for reading the CAPTCHA. However, it always required a significant level of resources to achieve. The development of software to automatically interpret CAPTCHAs brings up a number of problems for site operators. The problem, as discovered by Wintercore Labs and published at the start of March is that there are repeatable patterns evident in the audio file and by applying a set of complex but straight forward processes, a library can be built of the basic signal for each possible character that can appear in the CAPTCHA. Wintercore point to other audio CAPTCHAs that could be easily reversed using this technique, including the one for Facebook. The wider impact of this work might take some time to appear, but it provides an interesting proof of breaking audio CAPTCHAs. At the least, it shows that both of Google's CAPTCHA tools have now been defeated by software and it should only be a matter of time until the same can be said for Microsoft and Yahoo!'s offerings. Even with an effectiveness of only 90%, any failed CAPTCHA can easily be reloaded for a second try.

Captcha Seminar Topics

Gimpy

        Gimpy is a very reliable text CAPTCHA built by CMU in collaboration with Yahoo for their Messenger service. Gimpy is based on the human ability to read extremely distorted text and the inability of computer programs to do the same. Gimpy works by choosing ten words randomly from a dictionary, and displaying them in a distorted and overlapped manner. Gimpy then asks the users to enter a subset of the words in the image. The human user is capable of identifying the words correctly, whereas a computer program cannot.

CAPTCHA Logic

1.     The CAPTCHA image (or question) is generated. There are different ways to do this. The classic approach is to generate some random text, apply some random effects to it and convert it into an image.

2.     Step 2 is not really sequential. During step 1, the original text (pre-altered) is persisted somewhere, as this is the correct answer to the question. There are different ways to persist the answer, as a server-side session variable, cookie, file, or database entry.

3.     The generated CAPTCHA is presented to the user, who is prompted to answer it.

Conclusion

It’s believed that the fields of cryptography and artificial intelligence have much to contribute to one another. Captchas represent a small example of this possible symbiosis. Reductions, as they are used in Cryptography, can be extremely useful for the progress of algorithmic development. So, security researchers to create captchas based on different AI problems must be encouraged.
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High Performance Concrete

About High Performance Concrete :- :- 

        High performance concrete (HPC) is that which is designed to give optimized performance characteristics for the given set of materials, usage and exposure conditions, consistent with requirement of cost, service life and durability.      

        The American Concrete Institute (ACI) defines HPC ‘‘as Concrete which meets special performance and uniformity requirements that cannot always be achieved routinely by using only conventional materials and nominal mixing, placing, and curing practices.” The performance may involve enhancements of characteristics such as placement and compaction without segregation, long-term mechanical properties, and early age strength or service life in severe environments.

        High performance in a broad manner can be related to any property of concrete. It can mean excellent workability in the fresh state like self-leveling concrete or low heat of hydration in case of mass concrete, or very rigid setting and hardening of concrete in case of sprayed concrete or quick repair of roads and airfields, or very low imperviousness of storage vessels, or very low leakage rates of encapsulation containments for contaminating material.

        Also, the concrete must have a durability factor greater than 80 after 300 cycles of freezing and thawing to meet their definition.

        "All high-strength concrete is high-performance concrete, but not all high-performance concrete is high-strength concrete," says Henry G. Russell, consulting engineer and former chairman of the American Concrete Institute's high-performance concrete committee. High-performance concrete (HPC) is not one product but includes a range of materials with special properties beyond conventional concrete and routine construction methods.

        Any concrete which satisfies certain criteria proposed to overcome limitations of conventional concretes may be called High Performance Concrete. It may include concrete, which provides either substantially improved resistance to environmental influences or substantially increased structural capacity while maintaining adequate durability. It may also include concrete, which significantly reduces construction time to permit rapid opening or reopening of roads to Traffic, without compromising long-term serviceability. Therefore it is not possible to provide a unique definition of High Performance Concrete without considering the performance requirements of the intended use of the concrete.

General Characteristics Of High Performance Concrete 

1.   High strength    
2.   High early strength
3.   High modulus of elasticity
4.   High abrasion resistance
5.   High durability and long life in severe environments
6.   Low permeability and diffusion

Durability Characteristics 

        The most important property of High Performance Concrete, distinguishing it from conventional cement concrete is it’s far higher superior durability. This is due to the refinement of pore structure of microstructure of the cement concrete to achieve a very compact material with very low permeability to ingress of water, air, oxygen, chlorides, sulphates and other deleterious agents. Thus the steel reinforcement embedded in High Performance Concrete is very effectively protected. 

As far as the Resistance to freezing and thawing is concerned, several aspects of High Performance Concrete should be considered. First, the structure of hydrated cement paste is such that very little freezable water is present. Second, entrained air reduces the strength of high performance concrete because the improvement in workability due to the air bubbles cannot be fully compensated by a reduction in the water content in the presence of a super plasticizer. In addition, air entrainment at very low water/cement ratio is difficult. It is, therefore, desirable to establish the maximum value of the water/cement ratio below which alternating cycles of freezing and thawing do not cause damage to the concrete. 

The abrasion resistance of High Performance Concrete is very good, not only because of high strength of the concrete but also because of the good bond between the coarse aggregate and the matrix which prevents differential wear of the surface. The absence of open pores in the structure zone of High Performance Concrete prevents growth of bacteria. Because of all the above- reasons, High Performance Concrete is said to have better durability characteristics when compared to conventional cement concrete.

Aggregates

Coarse aggregate is one of the most important materials in HPC. The following are some general guidelines to be considered when selecting a coarse aggregate for use in the production of HPC. These include limiting the maximum size of the aggregate to less than 1 inch, which ensures good compatibility. The use of coarse aggregate with lower percent voids results in the production of high compressive strength concrete because the mixing water can be reduced and still maintain good workability.

Smaller maximum size aggregates are typically needed to ensure a high mortar to aggregate bond. Smaller size aggregate also allows for closer spacing between reinforcing steel. It has been found that the use of a coarser gradation of coarse aggregate often results in the achievement of higher compressive strength concrete as a result of being able to use less mixing water while ensuring the same workability. A general guideline developed by ACI Committee 211 suggests that for concrete less than 60 MPa compressive strength, use ¾ to 1 inch maximum size aggregate. For concrete compressive strength greater than 60 MPa, use 3/8 to ½ inch size aggregate.

Curing

Durability of concrete is dependent on many things materials, batching, handling, placing, finishing, and curing. Curing is the protection provided to new concrete to assure the desirable characteristics of the concrete are maximized. Proper curing provides an environment for the concrete; this means keeping the concrete at the proper temperature and moisture conditions to maximize the hydration of the cementitious materials. Thorough hydration provides many enhancements to concrete properties including improved strength gain, reduced permeability, improved freeze-thaw resistance, and reduced plastic shrinkage cracking. Yet, knowing all this, curing is often treated as a secondary operation. As noted in the Introduction to this Section, the success of HPC is dependent on increased attention to detail. Nowhere is this more evident than with curing. As HPC technology and the increased use of supplementary cementitious materials moves forward, proper specifications for curing HPC, followed by improved curing practices during construction, must be implemented.

Conclusion

The design of HPC is met when materials are optimized to produce a strong durable concrete. 

The water, cementitious materials, aggregates and chemical admixtures all need to be proportioned effectively to deliver the mix with the most desirable properties for placement, finishing, curing, and hardened condition.

 The designs are not cook book and in most cases require that the mix be trial batched to compare the fresh and hardened properties. As mentioned earlier in this section, the designer needs to be innovative with his materials and the proportioning of these materials.
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