EyePhone

Eyephone Design:- :- 

One question we address in this paper is how useful is a cheap, ubiquitous sensor, such as the camera, in building HPI applications. We develop eye tracking and blink detection mechanisms based algorithms originally designed for desktop machines using USB cameras. We show the limitations of an off-the-shelf HCI technique  when used to realize a HPI application on a resource limited Mobile device such as the Nokia N810. The EyePhone algorithmic design breaks down into the following pipeline phases: 

1) An eye detection phase;
2) An open eye template creation phase;
3) An eye tracking phase;
4) A blink detection phase. 

Impact of Distance Between Eye and Tablet

Since in the current implementation the open eye template is created once at a fixed distance, we evaluate the eye tracking performance when the distance between the eye and the tablet is varied while using EyePhone. We carry out the measurements for the middle-center position in the display (similar results are obtained for the remaining eight positions) when the person is steady and walking. As expected, the accuracy degrades for distances larger than 18-20 cm (which is the distance between the eye and the N810 we currently use during the eye template training phase). The accuracy drop becomes severe when the distance is made larger (e.g., 45 cm). These results indicate that research is needed in order to design eye template training techniques which are robust against distance variations between the eyes and the phone.

Blink Detection 

To detect blinks we apply a thresholding technique for the normalized correlation coefficient returned by the template matching function as suggested in. However, our algorithm differs from the one proposed in. In the authors introduce a single threshold T and the eye is deemed to be open if the correlation score is greater than T, and closed vice versa. In the EyePhone system, we have two situations to deal with: the quality of the camera is not the same as a good USB camera, and the phone’s camera is generally closer to the person’s face than is the case of using a desktop and USB camera. Because of this latter situation the camera can pick up iris movements, i.e., the interior of the eye, due to Eyeball rotation.

EyePhone Seminar Topics


EyePhone Overview 


As smartphones evolve researchers are studying new techniques to ease the human-mobile interaction. We propose EyePhone, a novel “hand-free” interfacing system capable of driving mobile applications/functions using only the user’s eyes movement and actions (e.g., wink). EyePhone tracks the user’s eye movement across the phone’s display using the camera mounted on the front of the phone; more specifically, machine learning algorithms are used to: i) track the eye and infer its position on the mobile phone display as a user views a particular application; and ii) detect eye blinks that emulate mouse clicks to activate the target application under view. We present a prototype implementation of EyePhone on a Nokia N810, which is capable of tracking the position of the eye on the display, mapping these positions to an application that is activated by a wink. At no time does the user have to physically touch the phone display.

Artificial Light Exposure For A Stationary Subject

In this experiment, the person is again not moving but in an artificially lit environment (i.e., a room with very low daylight penetration from the windows). We want to verify if different lighting conditions impact the system’s performance. The results, shown in Table 1, are comparable to the daylight scenario in a number of cases. However, the accuracy drops. Given the poorer lighting conditions, the eye tracking algorithm fails to locate the eyes with higher frequency. Daylight Exposure for Person Walking. We carried out an experiment where a person walks outdoors in a bright environment to quantify the impact of the phone’s natural movement; that is, shaking of the phone in the hand induced by the person’s gait. We anticipate a drop in the accuracy of the eye tracking algorithm because of the phone movement. This is confirmed by the results shown in Table 1, column 4. Further research is required to make the eye tracking algorithm more robust when a person is using the system on the move.

Conclusion

In this paper, we have focused on developing a HPI technology solely using one of the phone’s growing number of onboard sensors, i.e., the front-facing camera. We presented the implementation and evaluation of the EyePhone prototype. The EyePhone relies on eye tracking and blink detection to drive a mobile phone user interface and activate different applications or functions on the phone. Although preliminary, our results indicate that EyePhone is a promising approach to driving Mobile applications in a hand-free manner.
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Gasoline Electric Hybrid Car

About Gasoline Electric Hybrid Car :- :- 

When most people are perfectly happy with their gasoline-powered cars. The reason is twofold: to reduce tailpipe emissions and to improve mileage. The current standards require that the average mileage of all the new cars sold by an automaker should be 27.5 mpg (8.55 liters per 100 km). This means that if an automaker sells one hybrid car that gets 60 mpg (3.92 liters per 100 km), it can then sell four big, expensive luxury cars that only get 20 mpg (11.76 liters per 100 km)! when a car pulled up to the gas pump lately and been shocked by the high price of gasoline? As the pump clicked past $20 or $30, maybe you thought about trading in car for something that gets better mileage. Or maybe worried that the car is contributing to the greenhouse effect. The auto industry has the technology to address these concerns. It's the hybrid car. 

Hybrid Structure

Parallel System

It has a fuel tank, which supplies gasoline to the Engine. But it also has a set of batteries that supplies power to an electric motor. Both the engine and the electric motor can turn the transmission at the same time, and the transmission then turns the wheels. a typical parallel hybrid car notice that the fuel tank and gas engine connect to the transmission. The batteries and electric motor also connect to the transmission independently. As a result, in a parallel hybrid, both the electric motor and the gas engine can provide propulsion power.

Series System

By contrast, in a series hybrid the gasoline engine turns a generator, and the generator can either charge the Batteries or power an electric motor that drives the transmission. Thus, the gasoline engine never directly powers the vehicle. 

Hybrid System Operates In Four Phases

1. Start / Stop 

 When we turn the ignition key of the  Hybrid car, the electric motor comes to life. The electric motor, in turn, starts the gasoline engine. The car then performs a series of checks to determine if it can switch to electric-only operation: It checks to see if the batteries are charged, if the operating temperatures are okay and if interior climate control settings are in the appropriate range (the air conditioning's maximum setting requires the gasoline engine to run). If everything checks out, the engine will then shut off, leaving the car running under electric-only power. This process only takes a second or two.

When we come to a stop in the Hybrid car, the gasoline engine actually shuts off. The car runs on electric-only while you're at a stoplight or waiting in line at the drive-thru. The hybrid put a lot of effort into making the gasoline engine on-off cycles as smooth and seamless as possible, but testers reported a discernible shudder in the vehicle when the engine went on or off. This is common to all hybrid cars.

2. Electric Drive
3. Regenerative Braking
4. Electric Assisted Cruising

Advanced Aerodynamics To Reduce Drag 

When we are driving on the freeway, most of the work we’re engine does goes into pushing the car through the air. This force is known as aerodynamic drag. This drag force can be reduced in a variety of ways. One sure way is to reduce the frontal area of the car. Think of how a big SUV has to push a much greater area through the air than a tiny sports car. 

Reducing disturbances around objects that stick out from the car or eliminating them altogether can also help to improve the aerodynamics. For example, covers over the wheel housings smooth the airflow and reduce drag. And sometimes, mirrors are replaced with small cameras. 

Conclusion

Over the past four years, more than 100,000 hybrids have been sold in the United States.  Even though that's not a huge percentage of the more than 17 million new cars and trucks that are sold in the U.S. each year, it's enough of an incentive to get more manufacturers on the hybrid bandwagon. Analysts suggest that the market this year, alone, could muster up the sales of the past four combined.
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Disaster Management Civil Seminar Reports

Abstract :- :- 

Disaster is an sudden occurring calamity that causes distress. Disasters themselves are not limited to specific parts of world, though; certain areas might be more prone to certain specific type of disaster. Disaster cannot be stopped but can be predicted. There are certain types of disasters, where, the loss during the actual event is not necessarily as high, but, the losses become very high due to inability to manage the situation in a timely manner. More often than not, it happens due to confusion and chaos in the context of too much loss, and, inefficient utilization of resources - which are already strained. Disaster management works for the same sense. Disaster management works under a cycle of prevention, mitigation, preparedness & recovery. These activities include prediction of disaster, rate of disaster strike per year, rate of losses due to disaster, etc. The management gives safety criteria such as building and by laws for Earthquake, maintaining ground water table to sustain droughts, conducting programmes on awareness among peoples, proving shelter, food and other needs after disaster strike, etc. Management also has organizations of ready trained volunteers to help the peoples those who faced the disaster. GIS is an excellent tool for disaster management such as detecting the correct location of disaster, analysis of losses occurred, area affected and displays the updated data through internet for general awareness. As having wide range of future scope it enables us to be prepared for any uncertain calamity & a right path to follow.

What Is Disaster Management?

Disaster prevention begins at the top of an organization. The attitude of senior management toward security and prevention should permeate the entire organization. Once the potential areas of high exposure to the organization are identified, additional preventative measures can be considered for implementation. Mitigation is the most cost-efficient method for reducing the impact of hazards; however it is not always suitable. In the preparedness phase, emergency managers develop plans of action for when the disaster strikes. The aim of the recovery phase is to restore the affected area to its previous state.

1.   Prevention
2.   Mitigation
3.   Risk Analysis
4.   Preparedness
5.   Recovery

Disaster Management Civil Seminar Report




















Prevention


Disaster prevention techniques include two categories: procedural prevention and physical prevention. Procedural prevention relates to activities performed on a day-to-day, month-to-month, or annual basis, relating to security and recovery. Procedural prevention begins with assigning responsibility to authority to meet the challenges. The objective of procedural prevention is to define activities necessary to prevent impacts of disasters and ensure that these activities are performed regularly.

Physical prevention for disaster begins when a site is constructed. It includes special requirements for building construction, as well as fire protection for various equipment components. Special considerations include: computer area, fire detection and extinguishing systems, record(s) protection, air conditioning, heating and ventilation, electrical supply and UPS systems, emergency procedures, vault storage area(s), archival systems.

Recovery

Disaster recovery is the process, policies and procedures related to preparing for recovery or continuation of technology infrastructure critical to an organization after a natural or human-induced disaster. They include two sets of activities:

 (1) Short-term recovery activities return vital life-support systems to minimum operating standards (for example, cleanup, temporary housing, and access to food and water), and 

(2) Long-term recovery activities may continue for a number of years after a disaster. Their purpose is to return life to normal or improved levels (for example, redevelopment loans, legal assistance, and community planning).

A business continuity plan (BCP) includes planning for non-IT related aspects such as key personnel, facilities, crisis communication and reputation protection, and should refer to the disaster recovery plan (DRP) for IT related infrastructure recovery / continuity. 

                 Recovery efforts are primarily concerned with actions that involve rebuilding destroyed property, re-employment, and the repair of other essential infrastructure. An important aspect of effective recovery efforts is taking advantage of a ‘window of opportunity’ for the implementation of mitigative measures that might otherwise be unpopular. Citizens of the affected area are more likely to accept more mitigative changes when a recent disaster is in fresh memory.

Conclusion

Thus, the main motivation behind disaster management is to minimize the losses at the time of a disaster as well as ensure most efficient utilization of resources - which are already scarce.
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3G

What is 3G? :- :- 

"3G" stands for the "third generation" of mobile phones. Basically, a 3G device will provide a huge range of new functionality to your mobile. Up until now, your mobile phone has mainly been used only to carry voice messages, with maybe a bit of SMS text as well. 3G will allow simultaneous transfer of speech, data, text, pictures, audio and video. 

How Do 3G Phones Work?

As technology develops it gets harder and harder to work out what has changed when a new gadget or widget goes on sale. 

This is especially true of mobile phones. The first mobile phones were as bulky portable and attractive as a breeze block. 

Now they are all slinky, shiny and interchangeable. The improvements made to each one only become clear when you start to use them. 

Third-generation, or 3G, networks are going to continue this trend. The phones will look the same as ever but the uses to which they can be put will simply explode. 

How Will 3G Standards Look?

There will be a "family of standards" for 3G, covering new Radio Transmission Technology (RU).A number of proposals for the IMT-2000 3G standard were submitted to the ITU during 1998. Since this time, the industry and standards bodies have coordinated their efforts to harmonize the IMT-2000 candidates and arrive at a smaller set of standards. The Operators Harmonization Group (OHG) - a group of major operators from all parts of the world - has played a key role in this process, and agreed on a set of standards in May 1999.


Access Technologies (FDMA, TDMA, CDMA)  
  
3G Seminar PPT Report


FDMA: Frequency Division Multiple Access (FDMA) is the most common analog system.  It is a technique whereby spectrum is divided up into frequencies and then assigned to users.  With FDMA, only one subscriber at any given time is assigned to a channel.  The channel therefore is closed to other conversations until the initial call is finished, or until it is handed-off to a different channel.  A “full-duplex”  FDMA transmission requires two channels, one for transmitting and the other for receiving.  FDMA has been used for first generation analog systems. 

TDMA: Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) improves spectrum capacity by splitting each frequency into time slots.  TDMA allows each user to access the entire radio frequency channel for the short period of a call.  Other users share this same frequency channel at different time slots.  The base station continually switches from user to user on the channel.  TDMA is the dominant technology for the second generation mobile cellular networks.  

CDMA:  Code Division Multiple Access is based on “spread” spectrum technology.  Since it is suitable for encrypted transmissions, it has long been used for military purposes.  CDMA increases spectrum capacity by allowing all users to occupy all channels at the same time.  Transmissions are spread over the whole radio band, and each voice or data call are assigned a unique code to differentiate from the other calls carried over the same spectrum.  CDMA allows for a “ soft hand-off” , which means that terminals can communicate with several base stations at the same time. The dominant radio interface for third-generation mobile, or IMT-2000, will be a wideband version of CDMA with three modes (IMT-DS, IMT-MC and IMT-TC).

Abstract

Third generation is the generic term used for the next generation of mobile communications systems. 3G will provide enhanced services to those - such as voice, text and data - predominantly available today.

Video on demand, high speed multimedia and mobile Internet access are just a few of the possibilities for users in the future. 3G Services will expand the possibilities of information and communication.

UMTS is a part of the International Telecommunications Union's (ITU's) 'IMT-2000' vision of a global family of third-generation mobile communications systems.

The technology concepts for third generation systems and 3G services are currently under development industry wide. The global 3G Partnership Project (3GPP), a collaboration of organisations which includes the GSM Association, are committed to bringing us the 3rd Generation mobile systems.

The GSM Association's vision of 3G is based on today's GSM standard, but evolved, extended and enhanced to include an additional radio air interface, better suited for high speed and multimedia data services. This system will enable users of current second generation GSM wireless networks to migrate easily to the new third generation services, with minimal disruption. This new evolved phase of GSM will in addition be an important and integral part of the ITU's IMT-2000 family.

Conclusion

This article offers an introduction to 3G radio transmission technologies and various functionalities of 3G device. A qualitative comparison of mobile wireless technologies that could be viewed simultaneously as substitute and/or complementary paths for evolving to broadband wireless access. The goal of the analysis is to explore the future of wireless access and to speculate on the likely success and possible interactions between the mobile technologies in the future. Successful implementation, adoption, and overall acceptance of the 3G wireless networks depends largely on the ability of these new mobile networks to interface and inter-work with the existing 2G and legacy networks currently deployed worldwide.3G is a class apart from other older generations. It would blur the traditional boundaries of technologies- computing, communication and consumer devices. Let’s hope that 3G technology will come up worldwide, providing users with global roaming.
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Cisco IOS Firewall

About :- :-

The Cisco IOS Firewall is a security-specific option for Cisco IOS Software. It integrates robust firewall functionality and intrusion detection for every network perimeter. It adds greater depth and flexibility to existing Cisco IOS security solutions i.e., authentication, encryption, and failover, by delivering state-of-the-art security features: stateful, application-based filtering; dynamic per-user authentication and authorization; URL Filtering and others. When combined with Cisco IOS IPSec and Cisco IOS Technologies such as L2TP tunneling and Quality of Service (QoS), Cisco IOS Firewall provides a complete, integrated virtual private network (VPN) solution.

Definition Of Firewall

A FireWall is a network security device that ensures that all communications attempting to cross it meet an organization’s security policy.FireWalls track and control communications deciding whether to allow ,reject or encrypt communications.

        FireWalls are used to connect a corporate’s local network to the Internet and also within networks.In otherwords they stand in between the trusted network and the untrusted network.

Firewall Implementation Methods



1.As a Screening Router



A screening router is a special computer or an electronic device that screens (filters out) specific packets based on the criteria that is defined.





2. As a Proxy Server

A Proxy Server is an application that mediates traffic between a protected network and the Internet. Proxies are often used instead of router-based traffic controls, to prevent traffic from passing directly between networks. Proxy servers are application specific. In order to support a new protocol via a proxy, a proxy must be developed for it. Here there is no direct connection between the local network and the untrusted network. The  Proxy Server transfers an isolated copy of each approved packet from one network to the other network. No information about the local network is available to untrusted networks.

Regional / Branch Office Perimeter

Regional or branch offices can also deploy a Cisco IOS Firewall-enabled router at the perimeter of their network. Data and voice traffic between the regional or branch office and the corporate headquarters is transported via the virtual private network (VPN) connection. A separate, direct connection to the Internet from the regional or branch location is also available for access to public servers and information available on the Web. With this firewall deployment scenario, the firewall policy created for the corporate internet perimeter deployment scenario works in conjunction with the firewall policy at the regional or branch office perimeter. No connections are permitted from the untrusted Internet to the regional or branch office network; instead, Internet users connect to servers on the corporate DMZ network to access public corporate information. The DMZ network provides all the services that the corporation wishes to offer to outside users.

To better manage individual access from the regional office location to the Internet and internal resources, AAA and URL Policy Management servers are deployed at the regional location. Access to services and resources will be granted to employees only when they have the appropriate access privilege based on their individual security profiles. A syslog server is also made available for the regional office administrator to track and respond to potential attacks and nonstandard activities. For smaller branch office locations without system administration resources, centralized firewall policy management can be provided remotely by the resources on the main corporate network.

The Cisco PIX Firewall And Cisco IOS Firewall

The Cisco PIX Firewall is the world’s leading dedicated firewall appliance. It has received the highest level of security certification granted to any firewall product. The Cisco PIX Firewall is a turnkey appliance with unmatched performance and unparalleled features. Integration of third-party content solutions, such as NetPartner’s WebSENSE URL management software, further enhances the industry-leading capabilities of the Cisco PIX Firewall. For IP-based network security, the Cisco PIX Firewall is the clear choice for those requiring dedicated firewall appliances. When combined with IP Security (IPsec), Cisco PIX Firewall provides an integrated virtual private network (VPN) solution.The Cisco IOS Firewall integrates robust firewall and intrusion detection technology into the Cisco IOS Software. The Cisco IOS Firewall enhances existing Cisco IOS Software by including stateful, application-based filtering, dynamic per-user authentication and authorization, and real-time alerts. When combined with Cisco IOS IPsec software, the Cisco IOS Firewall provides an integrated VPN solution. 

Conclusion

The Cisco IOS Firewall offers integrated network security through Cisco IOS software. A robust security policy entails more than perimeter control or firewall setup and management—security policy enforcement must be an inherent component of the network. Cisco IOS Software, with many advanced security features such as a firewall, firewall-IDS, IPSec/VPN, and quality of service (QoS) is an ideal vehicle for implementing a global security policy. Building an end-to-end Cisco solution allows managers to enforce security policies throughput the network as they grow.
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Blue Eyes

Abstract:-:-

Is it possible to create a computer, which can interact with us as we interact each other? For example imagine in a fine morning you walk on to your computer room and switch on your computer, and then it tells you “Hey friend, good morning you seem to be a bad mood today. And then it opens your mail box and shows you some of the mails and tries to cheer you. It seems to be a fiction, but it will be the life lead by “BLUE EYES” in the very near future.

The basic idea behind this technology is to give the computer the human power. We all have some perceptual abilities. That is we can understand each others feelings. For example we can understand ones emotional state by analyzing his facial expression. If we add these perceptual abilities of human to computers would enable computers to work together with human beings as intimate partners. The “BLUE EYES” technology aims at creating computational machines that have perceptual and sensory ability like those of human beings.

Experimental Design

An experiment was designed to test the above hypotheses. The four physiological readings measured were heart rate, temperature, GSR and somatic movement. The heart rate was measured through a commercially available chest strap sensor. The temperature was measured with a thermocouple attached to a digital multimeter (DMM). The GSR was also measured with a DMM. The somatic movement was measured by recording the computer mouse movements. 

Manual And Gaze Input Cascaded (Magic) Pointing

This work explores a new direction in utilizing eye gaze for computer input. Gaze tracking has long been considered as an alternative or potentially superior pointing method for computer input. We believe that many fundamental limitations exist with traditional gaze pointing. In particular, it is unnatural to overload a perceptual channel such as vision with a motor control task. We therefore propose an alternative approach, dubbed MAGIC (Manual And Gaze Input Cascaded) pointing. With such an approach, pointing appears to the user to be a manual task, used for fine manipulation and selection. However, a large portion of the cursor movement is eliminated by warping the cursor to the eye gaze area, which encompasses the target. Two specific MAGIC pointing techniques, one conservative and one liberal, were designed, analyzed, and implemented with an eye tracker we developed. They were then tested in a pilot study. This early stage exploration showed that the MAGIC pointing techniques might offer many advantages, including reduced physical effort and fatigue as compared to traditional manual pointing, greater accuracy and naturalness than traditional gaze pointing, and possibly faster speed than manual pointing. The pros and cons of the two techniques are discussed in light of both performance data and subjective reports.



Implementation

We took two engineering efforts to implement the MAGIC pointing techniques. One was to design and implement an eye tracking system and the other was to implement MAGIC pointing techniques at the operating systems level, so that the techniques can work with all software applications beyond “demonstration” software.


Experimental Design

The two MAGIC pointing techniques described earlier were put to test using a set of parameters such as the filter’s temporal and spatial thresholds, the minimum cursor warping distance, and the amount of “intelligent bias” (subjectively selected by the authors without extensive user testing). Ultimately the MAGIC pointing techniques should be evaluated with an array of manual input devices, against both pure manual and pure gaze-operated pointing methods.

Since this is an early pilot study, we decided to limit ourselves to one manual input device. A standard mouse was first considered to be the manual input device in the experiment. However, it was soon realized not to be the most suitable device for MAGIC pointing, especially when a user decides to use the push-upwards strategy with the intelligent offset. Because in such a case the user always moves in one direction, the mouse tends to be moved off the pad, forcing the user adjust the mouse position, often during a pointing trial. We hence decided to use a miniature isometric pointing stick. Another device suitable for MAGIC pointing is a touchpad: the user can choose one convenient gesture and to take advantage of the intelligent offset. The experimental task was essentially a Fitts’ pointing task. Subjects were asked to point and click at targets appearing in random order. If the subject clicked off-target, a miss was logged but the trial continued until a target was clicked. An extra trial was added to make up for the missed trial. Only trials with no misses were collected for time performance analyses.

Implimenting Magic Pointing

We programmed the two MAGIC pointing techniques on a Windows NT system. The techniques work independently from the applications. The MAGIC pointing program takes data from both the manual input device (of any type, such as a mouse) and the eye tracking system running either on the same machine or on another machine connected via serial port. Raw data from an eye tracker cannot be directly used for gaze-based interaction, due to noise from image processing, eye movement jitters, and samples taken during saccade (ballistic eye movement) periods. We experimented with various filtering techniques and found the most effective filter in our case is similar to that described in. The goal of filter design in general is to make the best compromise between preserving signal bandwidth and eliminating unwanted noise. The key is to select fixation points with minimal delay. Samples collected during a saccade are unwanted and should be avoided. In designing our algorithm for picking points of fixation, we considered our tracking system speed (30 Hz), and that the MAGIC pointing techniques utilize gaze information only once for each new target, probably immediately after a saccade. Our filtering algorithm was designed to pick a fixation with minimum delay by means of selecting two adjacent points over two samples.

Conclusion

The nineties witnessed quantum leaps interface designing for improved man machine interactions. The BLUE EYES technology ensures a convenient way of simplifying the life by providing more delicate and user friendly facilities in computing devices. Now that we have proven the method, the next step is to improve the hardware. Instead of using cumbersome modules to gather information about the user, it will be better to use smaller and less intrusive units. The day is not far when this technology will push its way into your house hold, making you more lazy. It may even reach your hand held mobile device. Any way this is only a technological forecast.
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