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Google Glass

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Abstract

Project Glass is a research and development program by Google to develop an augmented reality Head-Mounted Display (HMD). The intended purpose of Project Glass products would be the hands-free displaying of information currently available to most smartphone users, and allowing for interaction with the Internet via natural language voice commands. These glasses will have the combined features of virtual reality and augmented reality. Google glasses are basically wearable computers that will use the same Android software that powers Android smartphones and tablets.

Introduction

Virtual reality is often used to describe a wide variety of applications commonly associated with immersive, highly visual, 3D environments. The development of CAD software, graphics hardware acceleration, head mounted displays, database gloves, and miniaturization.

Wearable Computing

Wearable computers, also known as body-borne computers are miniature electronic devices that are worn by the bearer under, with or on top of clothing. This class of wearable technology has been developed for general or special purpose information technologies and media development. Wearable computers are especially useful for applications that require more complex computational support than just hardware coded logics.

Google Glass

Eye Tap Technology

An EyeTap is a device that is worn in front of the eye that acts as a camera to record the scene available to the eye as well as a display to superimpose a computer-generated imagery on the original scene available to the eye. This structure allows the user's eye to operate as both a monitor and a camera as the EyeTap intakes the world around it and augments the image the user sees allowing it to overlay computer-generated data over top of the normal world the user would perceive. The EyeTap is a hard technology to categorize under the three main headers for wearable computing for while it is in theory a constancy technology in nature it also has the ability to augment and mediate the reality the user perceives.

Future Scope

Google Glass is as futuristic a gadget seen in recent times. It’s limited in scope right now, but the future, Google believes, is bright and the device itself is “incredibly compelling”.


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Bittorrent

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What Is Bittorrent?

                 BitTorrent is a protocol designed for transferring files. It is peer-to-peer in nature, as users connect to each other directly to send and receive portions of the file. However, there is a central server (called a tracker) which coordinates the action of all such peers. The tracker only manages connections, it does not have any knowledge of the contents of the files being distributed, and therefore a large number of users can be supported with relatively limited tracker bandwidth. The key philosophy of BitTorrent is that users should upload (transmit outbound) at the same time they are downloading (receiving inbound.) In this manner, network bandwidth is utilized as efficiently as possible. 

What Bittorrent Does?

                  When a file is made available using HTTP, all upload cost is placed on the hosting machine. With BitTorrent, when multiple people are downloading the same file at the same time, they upload pieces of the file to each other. This redistributes the cost of upload to downloaders, (where it is often not even metered), thus making hosting a file with a potentially unlimited number of downloaders affordable. Researchers have attempted to find practical techniques to do this before. It has not been previously deployed on a large scale because the logistical and robustness problems are quite difficult. Simply figuring out which peers have what parts of the file and where they should be sent is difficult to do without incurring a huge overhead. In addition, real deployments experience very high churn rates. Peers rarely connect for more than a few hours, and frequently for only a few minutes. 

Bittorrent


Pareto Efficiency

                  Well known economic theories show that systems which are pareto efficient, meaning that no two counter parties can make an exchange and both be happier, tend to have all of the above properties. In computer science terms, seeking Pareto efficiency is a local optimization algorithm in which pairs of counter parties see if they can improve their lot together, and such algorithms tend to lead to global optima. Specifically, if two peers are both getting poor reciprocation for some of the upload they are providing, they can often start uploading to each other instead and both get a better download rate than they had before.

Abstract

              Torrent refers to the small metadata file you receive from the web server (the one that ends in .torrent.) Metadata here means that the file contains information about the data you want to download, not the data itself. This is what is sent to your computer when you click on a download link on a website

Conclusion

             Legitimate P2P use is here and has a definite role to play in the future of the Internet. It is without a compromise between the copyright holders and the file sharers, that there will be an ever-escalating arms race of technology versus legal maneuvers. BitTorrent is a nifty program that works in a simple, if counter-intuitive.

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A Plan For No Spam

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 Introduction
 
        Unwanted and irrelevant mass mailings, commonly known as spam are becoming a serious nuisance that if left unchecked may soon be regarded as a Denial of Service Attack against the email infrastructure of the Internet itself.

Best Practices

        The traditional response of the internet to problem uses administrators of deployed protocols is to specify some form of 'Best Practices'. Spam is an attack on the Internet community. The short survey and prosecutions by the FTC and others show that the spam senders are in many cases outright criminals, how then can best practices help? One area in which best practices can provide concrete benefit is in ensuring that the vast majority of Internet users who are acting in good faith do not inadvertently make the problem worse by poorly chosen or poorly coordinated mitigation strategies. 

 
Naive Keyword Inspection  

        Messages are scanned for the presence of words or phrases that occur frequently in spam messages such as HGH or multi-level marketing. This type of filtering is implemented in many common email clients such as Outlook [MSFT].    Keyword Inspection alone is simple to implement but tends to have very high rate of false positives.

Authentication And Authorization

        Practically all spam messages sent today attempt to evade anti-spam measures by use of false header information. None of the spam messages that were examined in the writing of this paper carried a genuine sender address. Most of the massages contained from addresses that were obviously fake. In some cases the addresses were not even valid. Some contained no sender address at all. 

Legislation And Litigation

        The purpose of criminal legislation in a democratic is to deter persons from engaging in prohibited conduct. While it is unlikely that the criminal legislation alone would eliminate spam. Such legislation would certainly create a deterrent for both the spam senders and the advertisers seeking their services. The legislative process is very slow & time consuming. Legislators are reluctant to pass any legislation until they are confident that the implications are fully understood. Legislators will have to be convinced that any new legislation to address the problem of spam will bring benefits that significantly outweigh both the cost of enforcement and the political cost of committing the scarce resource of legislative time to the problem of spam rather than to other pressing problems.

Conclusion

        There are many techniques that address a part of the spam problem. No currently known technique provides a complete solution and it is unlikely that address a part of the problem. No currently known technique provides a complete solution and it is unlikely that any technique will be found in the future that provides a complete and costless solution.


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3D Optical Data Storage

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Introduction

                3D Optical Data Storage is the term given to any form of opticaldata storage in which information can be recorded and/or read with three dimensionalresolution (as opposed to the two dimensional resolution afforded, for example, by CD). This innovation has the potential to provide petabyte-level mass storage on DVD-sized disks. Data recording and readback are achieved by focusing lasers within the medium. However, because of the volumetric nature of the data structure, the laser light must travel through other data points before it reaches the point where reading or recording is desired. Therefore, some kind of nonlinearity is required to ensure that these other data points do not interfere with the addressing of the desired point.

Drive Design

        A drive designed to read and write to 3D optical data storage media may have a lot in common with CD/DVD drives, particularly if the form factor and data structure of the media is similar to that of CD or DVD. However, there are a number of notable differences that must be taken into account when designing such a drive.


Destructive Reading

         Since both the reading and the writing of data are carried out with laser beams, there is a potential for the reading process to cause a small amount of writing. In this case, the repeated reading of data may eventually serve to erase it (this also happens in phase change materials used in some DVDs).

Commercial Development

        In addition to the academic research, several companies have been set up to commercialize 3D optical data storage and some large corporations have also shown an interest in the technology. However, it is not yet clear how the technology will perform in the market in the presence of competition from other quarters such as hard drives, flash storage, and holographic storage.

Data Recording During Manufacturing

        Data may also be created in the manufacturing of the media, as is the case with most optical disc formats for commercial data distribution. In this case, the user cannot write to the disc - it is a ROM format. Data may be written by a nonlinear optical method, but in this case the use of very high power lasers is acceptable so media sensitivity becomes less of an issue.

Comparison With Blu-Ray Disc


        Blu-ray Disc (official abbreviation BD) is an optical discstorage medium designed to supersede the DVD format. The disc diameter is 120 mm and disc thickness 1.2 mm plastic optical disc, the same size as DVDs and CDs. Blu-ray Discs contain 25 GB (23.31 GiB) per layer, with dual layer discs (50 GB) being the norm for feature-length video discs. Triple layer discs (100 GB) and quadruple layers (128 GB) are available for BD-XL Blu-ray re-writer drives.


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3d Password

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Introduction

        Normally the authentication scheme the user undergoes is particularly very lenient or very strict. Throughout the years authentication has been a very interesting approach. With all the means of technology developing, it can be very easy for 'others' to fabricate or to steal identity or to hack someone’s password. Therefore many algorithms have come up each with an interesting approach toward calculation of a secret key. Therefore we present our idea, the 3D passwords which are more customizable and very interesting way of authentication. Now the passwords are based on the fact of Human memory. Generally simple passwords are set so as to quickly recall them.

Brief Description Of System

        The proposed system is a multi factor authentication scheme. It can combine all existing authentication schemes into a single 3D virtual environment .This 3D virtual environment contains several objects or items with which the user can interact. The user is presented with this 3D virtual environment where the user navigates and interacts with various objects. The sequence of actions and interactions toward the objects inside the 3D environment constructs the user’s 3D password.

Existing System

        Current authentication systems suffer from many weaknesses. Textual passwords are commonly used. Users tend to choose meaningful words from dictionaries, which make textual passwords easy to break and vulnerable to dictionary or brute force attacks. Many available graphical passwords have a password space that is less than or equal to the textual password space. Smart cards or tokens can be stolen.

Well-Studied Attack

         The attacker tries to find the highest probable distribution of 3D passwords. In order to launch such an attack, the attacker has to acquire knowledge of the most probable 3D password distributions. This is very difficult because the attacker has to study all the existing authentication schemes that are used in the 3D environment. It requires a study of the user’s selection of objects for the 3D password. Moreover, a well studied attack is very hard to accomplish since the attacker has to perform a customized attack for every different 3D virtual environment design.

Conclusion


        The 3D password is a multi factor authentication scheme that combines the various authentication schemes into a single 3D virtual environment. The virtual environment can contain any existing authentication scheme or even any upcoming authentication scheme or even any upcoming authentication schemes by adding it as a response to actions performed on an object. Therefore the resulting password space becomes very large compared to any existing authentication schemes.


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Symbian OS

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Symbian History
            Symbian OS started life as EPOC - the operating system used for many years in Psion handheld devices. When Symbian was formed in 1998, Psion contributed EPOC into the group. EPOC was renamed Symbian OS and has been progressively updated, incorporating both voice and data telephony technologies of ever greater sophistication with every product release.

 Abstract
              Symbian OS is designed for the mobile phone environment. It addresses constraints of mobile phones by providing a framework to handle low memory situations, a power management model, and a rich software layer implementing industry standards for communications, telephony and data rendering. Even with these abundant features, Symbian OS puts no constraints on the integration of other peripheral hardware. Symbian OS is proven on several platforms. It started life as the operating system for the Psion series of consumer PDA products (including Series 5mx, Revo and netBook), and various adaptations by Diamond, Oregon Scientific and Ericsson.


Product Diversity
        There is an apparent contradiction between software developers who want to develop for just one popular platform and manufacturers who each want to have a range of distinctive and innovative products. The circle can be squared by separating the user interface from the core operating system. Advanced mobile phones or “Smartphones” will come in all sorts of shapes - from traditional designs resembling today’s mobile phones with main input via the phone keypad, to a tablet form factor operated with a stylus, to phones with larger screens and small keyboards.

Introduction
            Small devices come in many shapes and sizes, each addressing distinct target markets that have different requirements. The market segment we are interested in is that of the mobile phone. The primary requirement of this market segment is that all products are great phones. This segment spans voice-centric phones with information capability to information-centric devices with voice capability. These advanced mobile phones integrate fully-featured personal digital assistant (PDA) capabilities with those of a traditional mobile phone in a single unit. 

Basic Principles 
            The cornerstone of Symbian’s modus operandi is to use open – agreed - standards wherever possible. Symbian is focused squarely on one part of the value chain - providing the base operating system for mobile internet devices. This enables manufacturers, networks and application developers to work together on a common platform.

Conclusion 
        Symbian OS is a robust multi-tasking operating system, designed specifically for real-world wireless environments and the constraints of mobile phones (including limited amount of memory). Symbian OS is natively IP-based, with fully integrated communications and messaging.

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