Wave Energy Converter

Abstract: - Wave Energy Converter :- 

The Wave Energy Converter - WEC is a new, highly efficient technology that harnesses the immense, renewable energy contained in ocean waves. Its unique ability to extract and convert energy from both the rising and falling of waves, represents a technological breakthrough.

A wave energy conversion apparatus comprises at least two devices , each comprising a surface float , at least one of the surface floats being rigidly attached to a submerged body . The movement between the at least two devices preferably effects an energy generation which is harnessed by the linkages.

The apparatus may also include mooring systems that maintain the complete apparatus in a position that is consistent with statutory requirements and not significantly inhibit its efficient operation.

Machine Configuration

Rotor
Two types of magnet fixation methods, surface mounting and burying magnets between pole efficiency and low material usage is desired. The electromagnetic efficiency includes hysteresis losses, eddy current losses and resistive losses. Furthermore, a low load angle is desired. A machine with inherently low load angle has better performance at both normal and transient conditions and is less affected by changing loads and varying frequencies. The four rotor concepts are simulated for different magnet dimensions and various pole widths. Output power, voltage and stator width are held constant in the simulation and the vertical length of the rotor is iterated to fulfill these conditions, usage such as total magnet volume, stator steel.

Wave Energy Converter Seminar Topics


Magnet Dimensions

Different heights to width relations of the magnets have been investigated in order to see if there is an optimum. The magnet volume of single magnet is kept constant and the electromagnetic efficiency and total magnet weight is plotted for different height to width relations of the magnets. As can be seen the electromagnetic efficiency is steadily increasing and the total magnet weight is decreasing with increasing magnet width for the surface mounted magnets. The pole width limits the magnet width and no optimum is reach for the surface mounted magnets. 

Floating Wave Energy Extractor 

Another variation of a wave energy converter, which uses the vertically exerted force of a wave, is a Floating wave energy extractor.

About the technology

The floating wave energy extractor is also a method for the maximum exploitation of the wave energy and it is designed for distant offshore with very unstable sea surface. The system is consists of a rectangular shaped huge mass floating body supported by a large number of floating air columns. The air column’s extensions are connected to pistons. The pistons are placed its own cylinders and it can move up and down through the cylinders when the floating air columns moves with the up-down movements of the waves. The upper side of the cylinders has two valves. One to a high-pressure fluid pipe and it will open when the floating air column on crest. One valve is to the low-pressure fluid pipe and it will open when the floating air column on the trough. The whole system is anchored to the sea bottom.  

Working

When the wave moves through the floating air columns, it to oscillate the floating air columns. When some of the air columns (air columns that on the crest) move upward, the whole weight of the floating system will be supported through that air columns. Also, now some floating air columns (the air columns that on the trough) will move downward. As some of the air columns move upward, the pistons of those air columns to pressurize its corresponding cylinders and the hydraulic fluid inside of the cylinders rush to the high-pressure fluid pipe with high pressure (now the valves to the low-pressure fluid pipe will be closed). Since the whole of the high-pressure fluid pipes are interconnected, the net pressure will focus on the turbine and the turbine will rotate. As the floating air columns that on the trough move down ward because of the gravity, the valves to the high-pressure fluid pipe will be closed and the valves to the low-pressure fluid pipe (the low-pressure fluid pipes are also interconnected) will be open. Now the low-pressure fluid will enter to the cylinders and will be filled. As the turbine rotate, the generator connected to the turbine generate electricity. 

Difficulties

      moorings – long-term fatigue of lines and connections; 

      standard couplings for quick-release and re-attachment of moorings and cables; 

      reduced-cost production of cables, construction and laying offshore;
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64 bit Computing - CSE

What is 64-bit Computing?

The labels "16-bit," "32-bit" or "64-bit," when applied to a microprocessor, characterize the processor's data stream. Although you may have heard the term "64-bit code," this designates code that operates on 64-bit data. 

In more specific terms, the labels "64-bit," 32-bit," etc. designate the number of bits that each of the processor's general-purpose registers (GPRs) can hold. So when someone uses the term "64-bit processor," what they mean is "a processor with GPRs that store 64-bit numbers." And in the same vein, a "64-bit instruction" is an instruction that operates on 64-bit numbers.

64 bit Architectures

Let’s discuss 64 bit Architectures from the leaders of Processor Manufacturers – AMD & Intel (AMD’s Opteron & Intel’s Itanium). 

Intel 64-bit architecture (IA-64)

By using a technique called VLIW, the letters VLIW mean “Very Large Instruction Word”. Processors that use this technique access the memory by transferring long program words, and in each word many instructions are packed. In the case of the IA-64, three instructions are used for each pack of 128 bits. As each instruction has 41 bits, there are 5 bits left that will be used to indicate the kinds of instruction that were packed. Figure 1 shows the instruction packaging scheme. This packaging lessens the number of memory accesses, leaving to the compiler the task of grouping the instructions in order to get the best of the architecture. 

As it has already been said, the 5-bit field, named as “pointer”, serves to indicate the kinds of instructions that are packed. Those 5 bits offer 32 kinds of packaging possible that, in fact, are reduced to 24 kinds, since 8 are not used. Each instruction uses one of the CPU features, which are listed below, and that can be identified in Figure given below.

         Unit I - integer data
         Unit F - floating-point operations
         Unit M - memory access and
        Unit B - branch prediction. 

The architecture that Intel suggests to execute those instructions, that was called Itanium, is versatile and promises performance by means of the simultaneous (parallel) execution of up to 6 instructions. Figure shows the diagram in blocks of this architecture that uses a ‘pipeline’ of 10 stages.



Speculation

The Itanium can load instructions and data onto the CPU before they're actually needed or even if they prove not to be needed, effectively using the processor itself as a cache. Presumably, this early loading is done when the processor is otherwise idle. The advantage gained by speculation limits the effects of memory latency by allowing loading of data before it is needed, thus making it ready to go the moment the processor can use it.                                                                                                                                       
       There are two kinds of speculation: data and control. With the speculation, the compiler advances an operation in a way that its latency (time spent) is removed from the critical way. The speculation is a form of allowing the compiler to avoid that slow operations spoil the parallelism of the instructions. Control speculation is the execution of an operation before the branch that precedes it. On the other hand, data speculation is the execution of a memory load before a storage operation (store) that precedes it and with which it can be related.

Rotating Registers

On top of the frames, there's register rotation, a feature that helps loop unrolling more than parameter passing. With rotation, Itanium can shift up to 96 of its general-purpose registers (the first 32 are still fixed and global) by one or more apparent positions. Why? So that iterative loops that hammer on the same register(s) time after time can all be dispatched and executed at once without stepping on each other. Each instance of the loop actually targets different physical registers, allowing them all to be in flight at once. 

If this sounds a lot like register renaming, it is. Itanium's register-rotation feature is less generic than all-purpose register renaming like Athlon's, so it's easier to implement and faster to execute. Chip-wide register renaming like Athlon's adds gobs of multiplexers, adders, and routing, one of the big drawbacks of a massively out-of-order machine. On a smaller scale, ARM used this trick with its ill-fated Piccolo DSP coprocessor. At the high end, Cydrome also used this technique, a favorite feature that Cydrome alumnus and Itanium team member Bob Rau apparently brought with him. 

So IA-64 has two levels of indirection for its own registers: the logical-to-virtual mapping of the frames and the virtual-to-physical mapping of the rotation. All this means that programs usually aren't accessing the physical registers they think they are, but that's nothing new to high-end microprocessors. Arcane as it seems, this method still uses less hardware trickery than the full register renaming of Athlon, Pentium III, or P4. 

AMD's 64-bit Platform 

To access an area in the computer's physical memory (RAM) to store or retrieve data, the processor needs the address of that location, which is an integer number representing one byte of memory storage. 

Suddenly, having 64-bit registers makes sense as, while a 32-bit processor can access up to 4.3 billion memory addresses (232) for a total of about 4GB of physical memory, a 64-bit processor could conceivably access over 18 petabytes of physical memory. This is the one area that clearly shows why 64-bit processors are the future of computing, as demanding applications such as databases have long been scraping on the 4GB memory ceiling.

If you are a business with a database of a terabyte or more of information, 64-bit processors look pretty good right now. Formerly known as X86-64, the AMD64 architecture is AMD's method of implementing 64-bit processors.
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Java Card : Seminar Report|PPT|PDF|DOC|Presentation|Free Download

What Is A Smart Card? :- :- 

Identical to the size of a credit card, a smart card stores and processes information through the electronic circuits embedded in silicon in the plastic substrate of its body. 

Types Of Smart Cards
There are two basic kinds of smart cards

1. Intelligent smart card 

        An intelligent smart card contains a microprocessor and offers read, write, and calculating capability, like a small microcomputer.

2.Memory card

A memory card, on the other hand, does not have a microprocessor and is meant only for information storage. A memory card uses security logic to control the access of memory. 

Abstract

Java Card is a smart card that is capable of running programs written in Java. A smart card is a credit card sized plastic card with an integrated circuit (IC) inside. The IC contains a microprocessor and memory so the smart card can process and store information. The Java Card platform lets smart card developers standardize on a common card platform.

Java Card Seminar Topics in Electronics


Java Card Security 

Java applets are subject to Java security restrictions; however, the security model of Java Card systems differs from standard Java in many ways. The Security Manager class is not supported on Java Card. Language security policies are implemented by the virtual machine.  Java applets create objects that store and manipulate data. An object is owned by the applet that creates it. Even though an applet may have the reference to an object, it cannot invoke the object's methods, unless it owns the object or the object is explicitly shared. An applet can share any of its objects with a particular applet or with all applets.

To test a Java Card applet in the JCWDE, you: 

              Start the JCWDE
              Run the APDUTool Utility
              Debug the Applet

Starting The JCWDE

The JCWDE, which runs on your workstation or PC, simulates the Java Card runtime environment on a Java virtual machine. It allows you to run your applet as though it was masked in the read-only memory of a smart card. And importantly, it allows you to run the test in your workstation or PC, without having to convert the applet, generate a mask file, or install the applet. To start the JCWDE, issue the JCWDE command. The primary input to the command is a configuration file that identifies one or more applets.

Converting A Java Card Applet

In Java Card technology, you don't directly incorporate a Java Card applet into a mask. Similarly, after a smart card is manufactured, you don't directly download a Java Card applet for installation onto a smart card. Instead, for masking, you convert an applet class and all the classes in its package to a JCA (Java Card Assembly) file. The JCA file and JCA files for any other packages to be included in the mask are then converted into a format compatible with the target runtime environment. It's this converted output for the target runtime environment that is incorporated into the mask.

Generating a Mask File

Use the mask generator provided with the Java Card 2.1.2 Development Kit to generate a mask file for one or more Java Card applets. The mask file can then be incorporated into a mask for a specific Java Card runtime environment. You specify as input to the mask generator the JCA file for the package that contains the applets, as well as JCA files for any other packages to be included in the mask file, such as JCA files for any needed Java Card API packages. 

Conclusion

Java Card can be used in all fields where the smart card is now being used. Java Card can be used as an ID card which contains personal information, as a medical card which stores medical information, as a credit/debit bank card, as an electronic purse etc. Multi-Application Java Cards, that is, more than one application in a single card is also available.
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Blu Ray Disc

About BLU-RAY DISC:- :-

Optical disks share a major part among the secondary storage devices. Blu-ray Disc is a next-generation optical disc format. The technology utilizes a blue laser diode operating at a wavelength of 405 nm to read and write data. Because it uses a blue laser it can store enormous more amounts of data on it than was ever possible.

Data is stored on Blu-Ray disks in the form of tiny ridges on the surface of an opaque 1.1-millimetre-thick substrate. This lies beneath a transparent 0.1mm protective layer. With the help of Blu-ray recording devices it is possible to record up to 2.5 hours of very high quality audio and video on a single BD.  

Blu-ray also promises some added security, making ways for copyright protections. Blu-ray discs can have a unique ID written on them to have copyright protection inside the recorded streams.

Parameters for HD Video Storage with Optical Disks

1.Optical Parameters
2.Disk Structure Parameters
3.Data Management Parameters

Optical parameters include laser wavelength, objective lens numerical aperture, protective layer thickness and free working distance. Data management parameters include data rate, video format, HDTV play time and bit-rate scheme. Disk structure parameters are user data capacity, minimum channel bit length and track-to-track spacing. 

1.Optical Parameters

The process for exposing data marks on a recordable optical disk is shown in Fig, where an input stream of digital information is converted with an encoder and modulator into a drive signal for a laser source. The laser source emits an intense light beam that is directed and focused onto the surface by the objective lens. As the surface moves under the scanning spot, energy from the intense scan spot is absorbed, and a small, localized region heats up. The surface, under the influence of heat beyond a critical writing threshold, changes its reflective properties. Modulation of the intense light beam is synchronous with the drive signal, so a circular track of data marks is formed as the surface rotates. The scan spot is moved slightly as the surface rotates to allow another track to be written on new media during the next revolution.

Blu Ray Disc Seminar Report in Computer Science


High Definition Camcorder Archiving

As the market penetration of High Definition TV sets continues to grow, so does the demand of consumers to create their own HD recordings. With the advent of the first HD camcorders, consumers can now for the first time record their own home movies in a quality level unlike any before. As these camcorders are tape-based, consumers cannot benefit from the convenience and direct access features they are used to from the DVD players and recorders. Now, the Blu-ray Disc format, with its unprecedented storage capacity, allows for the HD video recorded with an HD camcorder to be seamlessly transferred to a Blu-ray Disc. When the HD content is stored on a Blu-ray Disc, it can be randomly accessed in a way comparable to DVD. Furthermore, the Blu-ray Disc can be edited, enhanced with interactive menus for an even increased user experience and the disc can be safely stored for many years, without the risk of tape wear.

Blu-ray Disc and HD-DVD

The HD-DVD format, originally called AOD or Advanced Optical Disc, is based on much of today's DVD principles and as a result, suffers from many of its limitations. The format does not provide as big of a technological step as Blu-ray Disc. For example, its pre-recorded capacities are only 15 GB for a single layer disc, or 30 GB for a double layer disc. Blu-ray Disc provides 67% more capacity per layer at 25 GB for a single layer and 50GB for a double layer disc.

Applications

1.High Definition Television Recording
2.High Definition Video Distribution
3.High Definition Camcorder Archiving

Conclusion

The BD represents a major advancement in capacity as well as data transfer rate. It would be an ideal choice for the secondary storage purposes. The semiconductor storage for secondary memory is large, consumes more power and is more expensive. HDTV video recording and reproducing would essentially require the large storage capacity and data transfer rates, as offered by the Blu-ray disc. The Blu-ray disc has a wide variety of applications and is the ultimate storage device that would lead to digital convergence, ultimately leading to the convergence of the PC and CE technologies.
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Google Wave : Seminar Report|PPT|PDF|DOC|Presentation|Free Download

Abstract - Google Wave :- :- 

Google Wave is a real-time communication platform. It combines aspects of email, instant messaging, wikis, web chat, social networking, and project management to build one elegant, in-browser communication client. You can bring a group of friends or business partners together to discuss how your day has been or share files. Some are the features of Google Wave are, it is Real-time, Open source, etc.

The main idea behind Google  wave is instead of sending a message along with its entire thread of previous messages, requiring all responses to be stored in each user's inbox for context, message documents (called as waves) that contain complete threads of multimedia messages (blips) are perpetually stored on a central server. Google Wave provides federation using an extension of XMPP (Extensible Messaging and Presence Protocol), the open Wave Federation Protocol. Being an open protocol, anyone can use it to build a custom Wave system and become a wave provider.

Google Wave is a communication system, just like email or instant messaging. Only it combines these methods of communicating and adds a few more. Google Wave allows you to see messages near instantaneously as you type, but it also allows people who aren't logged in to join the conversation later.

Playback

Let's say you are added to a conversation (a wave) that has been going on for a long time? You can be added at any relevant point, not just the end. But even cooler, you can do a playback of the entire evolution of the conversation.  Let's say you want to edit your message (or even a message that was written by another participant in the wave). The original author is notified, but every participant can see that the message has been modified, and if they want, can replay the changes. This leads to a change in behavior and conversations become shared documents.

Wave Robot Architecture

The wave server not only responds to the wave clients but it also deals with the bunch of agents called robot agents. So Spelly &  Linky are the Robot agents. Robots reside on the App Engine and the get complete access to the document in which they participate. App Engine is something special. To keep development of robots simple Google had created a proxy server called robot proxy. The robot proxy takes the wave protocol from the wave server and converts it into HTTP protocol. It also takes all the HTTP protocols which are required for a robot. Then it manipulates it encodes it and sends back to the wave server. Wave server makes the required changes it the Wave document. Currently the robots are dependant for some good technical reasons. Google has said the it will remove that dependence since it is in development. Google has developed some libraries in the JAVA & PYTHON .

Wave Embed Architecture

Google Wave CSE IT Seminar Topics


Figure shows the basic structure of wave embedding.

Embedding is the way by which you can put Google wave in the outside World that is u can have a wave in your web site. While embedding the wave in the other web sites wave embedding keeps the part of wave in website which is not dependant on the crome. And that special part acts as wave client as shown in figure then talks with the wave server. 

Wave  

A wave, specifically, refers to a specific threaded conversation. It can include just one person, or it can include a group of users or even robots(explained below). The best comparison I can make is that it’s like your entire instant messaging (IM) history with someone. Anything you’ve ever discussed in a single chat or conversation is a wave

Wavelet

A wavelet is also a threaded conversation, but only a subset of a larger conversation (or a wave). It’s like a single IM conversation – a small part of a larger conversation and a larger history. Wavelets, though, can be created and managed separately from a wave.

Conclusion

Google Wave is a new communication service previewed today at Google I/O. "A wave is equal parts conversation and document, where people can communicate and work together with richly formatted text, photos, videos, maps, and more." The service seems to combine Gmail and Google Docs into an interesting freeform workspace that could be used to write documents collaboratively, plan events, play games or discuss recent news. Google Wave has been designed by the founders of Where 2 Tech, a start-up acquired by Google to create a cutting edge mapping service, which later became Google Maps.
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Solar Tree ECE Seminar

About Solar Tree - Abstract :- :-

Now a day with the growing population and energy demand we should take a renewable option of energy source and also we should keep in mind that energy should not cause pollution and other natural hazards. In this case the solar energy is the best option for us.

India is a highly populated country, so we should take the advantage of such an energy which requires a very less space to produce energy efficiently. In this case solar tree could be the best one for us. We can also use the technique called “SPIRALLING PHYLLATAXY” to improve the efficiency of the plant. It can be applied in street lightening system, industrial power supply etc. It is much better than the traditional solar PV system in area point of view and also more efficient. So this will be a very good option and should be implemented. 

Solar Tree ECE Seminar

Why We Called It As Solar Tree


As we know trees are present in nature and they can produce their own food material by the process called PHOTOSYNTHESIS. It is the process by which the green plant collects energy from sun and the water present in soil at the day time and can produces their own food material. By this process they are indirectly providing food to the human society because we are depending on the green plants for our food directly or indirectly.

Here we are considering the example for understanding about the solar tree. This is a tree in which the stems connected acts as the branches of the tree and the solar panels are like the leaves. Green leaves are producing food materials for human beings likewise this leaves are producing energy for the society. So it is very appropriate to called it as a tree. 

Why It Is Better Than A Traditional System

For the traditional system we require large size of land to generate a small amount of power. It requires about 1% land as compare to the traditional system.

Example – To generate 2 MW power from a pv module we requires 10 -12 acres of land for housing of panels only.

But for the same amount of energy we require only 0.10-0.12 acres of land in case of solar tree.

 Why It Is Unique

The unique technique is that flexible panels connected to the stem which can be rotated as our desire. So that flexibility avoidance of wind pressure can be possible. Flexibility offers manual rotating so that maximum power can be obtained.

Conclusion

To fulfil the increasing energy demand the people and saving of land this project is very successful one. This can provide electricity without any power cut problem. The extra energy can be provided to the grid.
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