Sunday, October 14

Paper Battery


        The Batteries form a significant part of many electronic devices. Typical electrochemical batteries or cells convert chemical energy into electrical energy. Batteries based on the charging ability are classified into primary and secondary cells. Secondary cells are widely used because of their rechargeable nature.  

Presently, battery takes up a huge amount of space and contributes to a large part of the device's weight. There is strong recent interest in ultrathin, flexible, safe energy storage devices to meet the various design and power needs of modern gadgets. New research suggests that carbon nanotubes may eventually provide the best hope of implementing the flexible batteries which can shrink our gadgets even more.

The paper batteries could meet the energy demands of the next generation gadgets. A paper battery is a flexible, ultra-thin energy storage and production device formed by combining carbon nanotubes with a conventional sheet of cellulose-based paper. A paper battery acts as both a high-energy battery and super capacitor, combining two components that are separate in traditional electronics. 

Paper Battery Seminar Topics

Principal Of Operation Of Cell

A battery is a device that converts chemical energy directly to electrical energy. It consists of a number of voltaic cells. Each voltaic cell consists of two half cells connected in series by a conductive electrolyte containing anions and cations. One half-cell includes electrolyte and the electrode to which anions (negatively charged ions) migrate, i.e., the anode or negative electrode. The other half-cell includes electrolyte and the electrode to which cations (positively charged ions) migrate, i.e., the cathode or positive electrode. In the redox reaction that powers the battery, cations are reduced (electrons are added) at the cathode, while anions are oxidized (electrons are removed) at the anode. The electrodes do not touch each other but are electrically connected by the electrolyte. Some cells use two half-cells with different electrolytes. A separator between half cells allows ions to flow, but prevents mixing of the electrolytes.

Types Of Batteries

Batteries are classified into two broad categories. Primary batteries irreversibly (within limits of practicality) transform chemical energy to electrical energy. When the initial supply of reactants is exhausted, energy cannot be readily restored to the battery by electrical means. Secondary batteries can be recharged. That is, they can have their chemical reactions reversed by supplying electrical energy to the cell, restoring their original composition.

Life Of Battery

Even if never taken out of the original package, disposable (or "primary") batteries can lose 8 to 20 percent of their original charge every year at a temperature of about 20°–30°C. [54] This is known as the "self-discharge" rate and is due to non-current-producing "side" chemical reactions, which occur within the cell even if no load is applied to it. The rate of the side reactions is reduced if the batteries are stored at low temperature, although some batteries can be damaged by freezing. High or low temperatures may reduce battery performance. This will affect the initial voltage of the battery. For an AA alkaline battery this initial voltage is approximately normally distributed around 1.6 volts.

Rechargeable batteries self-discharge more rapidly than disposable alkaline batteries, especially nickel-based batteries a freshly charged NiCd loses 10% of its charge in the first 24 hours, and thereafter discharges at a rate of about 10% a month. Most nickel- based batteries are partially discharged when purchased, and must be charged before first use.

Carbon Nanotubes

Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are allotropes of carbon with a cylindrical nanostructure. Nanotubes have been constructed with length-to-diameter ratio of up to 132,000,000:1, significantly larger than any other material. These cylindrical carbon molecules have novel properties, making them potentially useful in many applications in nanotechnology, electronics, optics, and other fields of materials science, as well as potential uses in architectural fields. 


      The flexible shape allows the paper battery to be used small or irregularly-shaped electronics


The paper-like quality of the battery combined with the structure of the nanotubes embedded within gives them their light weight and low cost, making them attractive for portable electronics, aircraft, automobiles, and toys.


One of the major problems bugging the world now is Energy crisis. Every nation needs energy and everyone needs power. And this problem which disturbs the developed countries perturbs the developing countries like India to a much greater extent. Standing at a point in the present where there can’t be a day without power, Paper Batteries can provide an altogether path-breaking solution to the same. Being Biodegradable, Light-weight and Nontoxic, flexible paper batteries have potential adaptability to power the next generation of electronics, medical devices and hybrid vehicles, allowing for radical new designs and medical technologies. But India still has got a long way to go if it has to be self-dependant for its energy solution. Literature reflects that Indian researchers have got the scientific astuteness needed for such revolutionary work. But what hinders their path is the lack of facilities and funding. Of course, the horizon of inquisitiveness is indefinitely vast and this paper is just a single step towards this direction.


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